The KLU faculty, post-docs, and PhD candidates regularly publish the results of their research in scientific journals. You will find a complete overview of all KLU publications below (e.g. articles in peer-reviewed journals, professional journals, books, working papers, and conference proceedings). Search for relevant terms and keywords, or filter the list by name, year of publication or type of publication. The references include DOIs and abstracts where available, and you can download them to your own reference database or platform. We regularly update the database with new publications.
Journal Articles (Peer-Reviewed)
Ng, Adolf K.Y., Huiying Zhang, Mawuli Afenyo, Austin Becker, Stephen Cahoon, Shu-Ling Chen, Miguel Esteben, Claudio Ferrari, Yui-yip Lau, Paul T.W. Lee, Jason Monios, Alessio Tei, Zaili Yang and Michele Acciaro (2018): Port decision-maker perceptions on the effectiveness of climate adaptation actions, Coastal Management, 46 (3): 148-175.
Abstract: Effective adaptation to climate change impacts is rapidly becoming an important research topic. Hitherto, the perceptions and attitudes of stakeholders on climate adaptation actions are understudied, partly due to the emphasis on physical and engineering aspects during the adaptation planning process. Building on such considerations the paper explores the perceptions of port decision-makers on the effectiveness of climate adaptation actions. The findings suggest that while port decision-makers are aware of potential climate change impacts and feel that more adaptation actions should be undertaken, they are sceptical about their effectiveness and value. This is complemented by a regional analysis on the results, suggesting that more tailor-made adaptation measures suited to local circumstances should be developed. The study illustrates the complexity of climate adaptation planning and of involving port decision-makers under the current planning paradigm.
Mölders, Sophie, Prisca Brosi, Magdalena Bekk, Matthias Spörrle and Isabell M. Welpe (2018): Support for quotas for women in leadership: The influence of gender stereotypes, Human Resource Management, 57 (4): 869-882.
Abstract: This study examines support for quotas for women in leadership, a currently highly debated topic in management research and practice. Using a sample of German working adults (N = 761), our results suggest that stereotypes about women (n = 380) are significantly related to support for quotas for women in leadership. Ascriptions of agency to typical women, that is, the extent to which women are generally seen as assertive, active, and strong, were positively related to participants' support for quotas for women in leadership in male‐gendered industries and high hierarchical positions, whereas ascriptions of communality to typical women, that is, the extent to which women are seen as understanding, supportive, and caring, were generally positively related. This pattern emerged for both male and female participants. Unexpectedly, gender‐stereotypic ascriptions to men (n = 381) were also related to support for quotas for women in leadership—with a positive relationship with agency in male‐gendered industries and a general negative relationship with communality, although these results were less pronounced. Implications for organizations are derived from these results, highlighting how the introduction of quotas for women in leadership can be smoothed by addressing how employees see women in terms of agency and communality.
Van Quaquebeke, Niels and Will Felps (2018): Respectful inquiry: A motivational account of leading through asking questions and listening, Academy of Management Review, 43 (1): 5-27.
Abstract: Practitioners repeatedly note that the everyday behavior of asking followers open questions and attentively listening to their responses is a powerful leadership technique. Yet, despite such popularity, these practices are currently under-theorized. Addressing this gap, we formally define the behavioral configuration of asking open questions combined with attentive listening as “Respectful Inquiry”, and then draw on Self-Determination Theory to provide a motivational account of its antecedents, consequences, and moderators within a leader-follower relationship. Specifically, we argue that Respectful Inquiry principally satisfies followers' basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. Against this background, we highlight ironic contexts where Respectful Inquiry is likely to be especially rare, but would also be especially valuable. These ironic contexts include situations where interpersonal power difference, time pressure, physical distance, cognitive load, follower dissatisfaction, or organizational control focus are high. We additionally outline how the effect of Respectful Inquiry behaviors critically hinges upon the interaction history a follower has with a leader. More generally, we make the suggestion that the leadership field would benefit from complementing its traditional focus on “gestalt” leadership styles with research on concrete and narrow communicative behaviors, such as Respectful Inquiry.
Schwarzmüller, Tanja, Prisca Brosi, Denis Duman and Isabell M. Welpe (2018): How Does the Digital Transformation Affect Organizations? Key Themes of Change in Work Design and Leadership, management revue, 29 (2): 114-138.
Abstract: Due to recent technological advances, organizations currently face massive changes of their work design and leadership. Unfortunately, the exact nature of these changes is still unclear as most existing studies were conducted during earlier stages of the digital transformation and the available literature is highly fragmented. To provide an up-to-date overview on the changes in work design and leadership resulting from the digital transformation and to structure our existing knowledge in this domain, we conducted an open-ended online survey with 49 recognized digitalization experts and identified key themes of change. In sum, four key themes of change affecting both work design and leadership emerged, namely changes in work-life and health, the use of information and communication technology, performance and talent management and organizational hierarchies. In addition, two macro-level change dimensions regarding the structure of work and relationship-oriented leadership evolved. While some of the identified changes were partly covered in earlier studies, others have so far not received much attention despite their apparently high relevance in the current stage of the digital transformation. The results of this study therefore provide an important basis for future research and help organizations to strategically prepare for the requirements of the digital age.
Udenio, Maximiliano, Kai Hoberg and Jan C. Fransoo (2018): Inventory Agility upon Demand Shocks: Empirical Evidence from the Financial Crisis, Journal of Operations Management, 62: 16-43.
Merkle, Christoph (2018): The Curious Case of Negative Volatility, Journal of Financial Markets, 40: 92-108.
Abstract: In a panel survey of brokerage clients in the United Kingdom, participants mostly perceive their own portfolio as no more volatile than the market portfolio. Taking into account observed portfolio betas, this implies a belief in very low idiosyncratic portfolio volatility, which is even negative for a considerable fraction of the studied investor population. Possible explanations are extreme overconfidence in combination with a misunderstanding of how market and portfolio volatility are related. The identified bias contributes to underdiversification, as a belief in negative idiosyncratic volatility conceals the true benefits of diversification. In an experiment, we confirm the existence of a belief in negative volatility and rule out the underestimation of beta as an alternative explanation.
Moradi, Saleh, Niels Van Quaquebeke and John A. Hunter (2018): Flourishing and prosocial behaviors: A multilevel investigation of national corruption level as a moderator, PLOS ONE, 13 (7).
Abstract: The current psychology literature defines flourishing as leading an authentic life that directs one towards the highest levels of both feeling good and functioning well. Numerous studies show that flourishing relates to a wide array of advantageous personal outcomes. However, the same literature says very little about the social outcomes of flourishing, even though an individual’s pursuit of well-being does not happen in isolation of others. With the present research, we seek to address this void. Specifically, we argue that flourishing, in its psychological conceptualization, does not provide strong moral guidance. As such, flourishing is amoral when it comes to social outcomes such as prosocial behaviors. Drawing on social learning theory, we argue that flourishers’ prosociality is at least somewhat contingent on the moral guidance of their society. To assess this, we tested society’s corruption level as a moderator in the relation between flourishing and prosocial behavior. To that end, we conducted two studies using data from the European Social Survey (ESS), which were collected in 2006 (N1 = 50,504) from 23 countries and in 2012 (N2 = 56,835) from 29 countries. We generally find that corruption at the national level moderates the relation between flourishing and prosocial behaviors (i.e., helping close/distant others, charitable activities). Overall, our study suggests that moral guidance should factor into discussions about flourishing.
Jaksic, Marco and Jan C. Fransoo (2018): Dual sourcing in the age of near-shoring: trading off stochastic capacity limitations and long lead times, European Journal of Operational Research, 267 (1): 150-161.
Abstract: We model a periodic review inventory system with non-stationary stochastic demand, in which a manufacturer is procuring a component from two available supply sources. The faster supply source is modeled as stochastic capacitated with immediate delivery, while the slower supply source is modeled as uncapacitated with a longer fixed lead time. The manufacturer’s objective is to choose how the order should be split between the two supply sources in each period, where the slower supply source is used to compensate for the supply capacity unavailability of the faster supply source. This is different from the conventional dual-sourcing problem, and motivated by the new reality of near-shoring options. We derive the optimal dynamic programming formulation that minimizes the total expected inventory holding and backorder costs over a finite planning horizon and show that the optimal policy is relatively complex. We extend our study by developing an extended myopic two-level base-stock policy and we show numerically that it provides a very close estimate of the optimal costs. Numerical results reveal the benefits of dual-sourcing under near-shoring, where we point out that in most cases the manufacturer should develop a hybrid procurement strategy, taking advantage of both supply sources to minimize its expected total cost.
Dong, Chuanwen, Robert Boute, Alan C. McKinnon and Marc Verelst (2018): Investigating synchromodality from a supply chain perspective, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 61 (Part A): 42-57.
Abstract: Greater use of multimodal transportation can substantially improve the environmental performance of freight transportation. Despite strenuous efforts by public policy-makers to alter the freight modal split, most companies still rely heavily on road transportation, and modal shifts to rail and water have remained modest at best. In this paper we argue that this is partly the result of a failure to take a holistic supply chain view of the modal shift process. Synchromodality provides a framework within which shippers can manage their supply chains more flexibly to increase the potential for shifting mode. On the basis of a literature review, we broaden the conventional focus of multimodal transportation to give it a supply chain dimension, and propose the concept of ‘Synchromodality from a Supply Chain Perspective’ (SSCP). Using a case study we show that when the supply chain impacts are taken into account, it is possible to significantly increase the share of intermodal rail transportation within a corridor, without necessarily increasing total logistics cost or reducing the service level. In this way the environmental impact of freight activities can be significantly reduced.
Acciaro, Michele, Claudio Ferrari, Jasmine S. L. Lam, Rosario Macario, Athena Roumboutsos, Christa Sys, Alessio Tei and Thierry Vanelslander (2018): Are the innovation processes in seaport terminal operations successful? (published online first), Maritime Policy & Management, 45 (6): 787-802.
Abstract: The maritime and port sector is widely considered conservative concerning the ability to introduce innovation in respect to other industries. This may be due to the lack of cooperative interactions among the several players involved. It does not mean that innovation does not occur in this industry. Along with some technical innovations, managerial, organizational, and cultural innovations also take place in the sector. The literature has considered the assessment and effects of the adoption of particular innovation, but still few studies underline the innovation path in a broad sense with a specific focus on terminal operators. The present article aims at filling this gap through a field analysis grouping together case studies developed in different world regions and examining the adoption path of innovation through a mix of three different techniques (i.e. the H- and I-indexes, a Systems of Innovation Analysis, and a Qualitative Comparative Analysis). Research outcomes underline how, even if no unique recipe for success can be found, specific factors (e.g. a ranking of innovation objectives, coordination among actors, and institutions) can influence the achievement of success. The analyses allow suggesting strategic and policy advice that may help link in a better way the innovation drivers with their actual effects.
Dong, Chuanwen, Sandra Transchel and Kai Hoberg (2018): An Inventory Control Model for Modal Split Transport: A Tailored Base-Surge approach, European Journal of Operational Research, 264 (1): 89-105.
Abstract: Firms are increasingly interested in transport policies that enable a shift in cargo volumes from road (truck) transport to less expensive, more sustainable, but slower and less flexible transport modes like railway or inland waterway transport. The lack of flexibility in terms of shipment quantity and delivery frequency may cause unnecessary inventories and lost sales, which may outweigh the savings in transportation costs. To guide the strategic volume allocation, we examine a modal split transport (MST) policy of two modes that integrates inventory controls.We develop a single-product–single-corridor stochastic MST model with two transport modes considering a hybrid push–pull inventory control policy. The objective is to minimize the long-run expected total costs of transport, inventory holding, and backlogging. The MST model is a generalization of the classical tailored base-surge (TBS) policy known from the dual sourcing literature with non-identical delivery frequencies of the two transport modes. We analytically solve approximate problems and provide closed-form solutions of the modal split. The solution provides an easy-to-implement solution tool for practitioners. The results provide structural insights regarding the tradeoff between transport cost savings and holding cost spending and reveal a high utilization of the slow mode. A numerical performance study shows that our approximation is reasonably accurate, with an error of less than 3% compared to the optimal results. The results also indicate that as much as 85% of the expected volume should be split into the slow mode.
Lewin, Rebecca, Maria Besiou, Jean-Baptiste Lamarche, Stephen Cahill and Sara Guerrero-Garcia (2018): Delivering in a moving world…looking to our supply chains to meet the increasing scale, cost and complexity of humanitarian needs, Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 8 (4): 518-532.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of the humanitarian supply chain (HSC) as the backbone of the humanitarian operations. It further proposes feasible ways to overcome some of the main supply chain challenges identified by practitioners to achieve cost efficient and effective operations. Design/methodology/approach The challenges that the HSC faces and proposed changes to overcome them are gathered from interviews with nearly 40 practitioners. Findings Five critical issues that affect the future of HSCs are identified along with recommendations to address them. Social implications It supports the fulfillment of the agenda for humanity’s five core responsibilities: global leadership to prevent and end conflict, uphold the norms that safeguard humanity, leave no one behind, change people’s lives – from delivering aid to ending need, and invest in humanity. Originality/value The original report was presented at the first World Humanitarian Summit in Istanbul in May 2016.
Dolinskaya, Irina, Maria Besiou and Sara Guerrero-Garcia (2018): Humanitarian medical supply chain in disaster response, Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 8 (2): 199-226.
Schuh, Sebastian C., Niels Van Quaquebeke, Natalija Keck, Anja S. Göritz, Katherine Xin and David De Cremer (2018): Does it take more than ideals? How counter-ideal value congruence shapes employees' trust in the organization, Journal of Business Ethics, 149 (4): 987-1003.
Abstract: Research on value congruence rests on the assumption that values denote desirable behaviors and ideals that employees and organizations strive to approach. In the present study, we develop and test the argument that a more complete understanding of value congruence can be achieved by considering a second type of congruence based on employees’ and organizations’ counter-ideal values (i.e., what both seek to avoid). We examined this proposition in a time-lagged study of 672 employees from various occupational and organizational backgrounds. We used difference scores as well as polynomial regression and response surface analyses to test our hypotheses. Consistent with our hypotheses, results reveal that counter-ideal value congruence has unique relations to employees’ trust in the organization that go beyond the effects of ideal value congruence. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of this expanded perspective on value congruence.
Meissner, Joern and Olga V. Senicheva (2018): Approximate dynamic programming for lateral transshipment problems in multi-location inventory systems, European Journal of Operational Research, 265 (1): 49-64.
Abstract: Companies commonly allocate their inventories across multiple locations based on their historical sales rates. However, random fluctuations in customer purchases, such as those caused by weather conditions and other external factors, might cause significant deviations from expected demand, leading to excess stock in some locations and stockouts in others. To fix this mismatch, companies often turn to lateral transshipments, e.g., the movement of stock between locations of the same echelon.In this paper, we examine multi-location inventory systems under periodic review with multiple opportunities for proactive transshipments within one order cycle. If stockouts occur, demand is lost with no opportunity to backorder. The objective of our model is to find an optimal policy that indicates the sources and the destinations of transshipments as well as the number of units, to maximise the profit of the network. We create a dynamic program that can, in principal, be solved to optimality using Bellman’s equation. However, the size of the state and decision spaces makes it impossible to find the optimal policy for real-world sized problem instances. Thereby, we use forward approximate dynamic programming to find a near-optimal transshipment policy.Finally, we conduct an extensive numerical study to gauge the performance of our transshipment policy. For small size instances, we compare our policy to the optimal one. For larger scale instances, we consider other practically oriented heuristics. Our numerical experiments show that our proposed algorithm performs very well compared to state-of-the-art methods in the literature.
Salem, Mojtaba, Niels Van Quaquebeke and Maria Besiou (2018): How field office leaders drive learning and creativity in humanitarian aid: Exploring the role of boundary-spanning leadership for expatriate and local aid worker collaboration, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39 (5): 594-611.
Abstract: Many humanitarian aid workers receive training prior to being dispatched into the field, but they often encounter challenges that require additional learning and creativity. Consequently, aid organizations formally support collaboration among the expatriate and local workers in a field office. At best, those aid workers would not only exploit their joint knowledge but also explore novel ways of managing the challenges at hand. Yet differences between expatriate and local groups (e.g., in ethnicity, religion, education, and salary) often thwart intergroup collaboration in field offices and, by extension, any joint learning or creativity. In response to this issue, we study the role of field office leaders—specifically, how their boundary-spanning behavior may inspire collaboration between the two groups and therefore facilitate joint learning and creativity. We propose that a leader's in-group prototypicality additionally catalyzes this process—that is, a leader's behavior has more impact if s/he is seen as representing his/her group. We tested and found support for our hypothesized moderated mediation model in a field sample of 137 aid workers from 59 humanitarian organizations. Thus, our study generally highlights the pivotal role that field office leaders play for crucial outcomes in humanitarian aid operations. Furthermore, we offer concrete steps for field office leaders who want to inspire better collaboration between the expatriate and local aid workers they lead.
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Wenzel, Ramon and Niels Van Quaquebeke (2018): The Double-Edged Sword of Big Data in organizational and management research: A Review of Opportunities and Risks, Organizational Research Methods, 21 (3): 548-591.
Abstract: While many disciplines embrace the possibilities that Big Data present for advancing scholarship and practice, organizational and management research has yet to realize Big Data’s potential. In an effort to chart this newfound territory, we briefly describe the principal drivers and key characteristics of Big Data. We then review a broad range of opportunities and risks that are related to the Big Data paradigm, the data itself, and the associated analytical methods. For each, we provide research ideas and recommendations on how to embrace the potentials or address the concerns. Our assessment shows that Big Data, as a paradigm, can be a double- edged sword, capable of significantly advancing our field but also causing backlash if not utilized properly. Our review seeks to inform individual research practices as well as a broader policy agenda in order to advance organizational and management research as a scientifically rigorous and professionally relevant field.
Aktas, Emel, Jaqueline M. Bloemhof, Jan C. Fransoo, Hans-Otto Günther and Werner Jammernegg (2018): Green logistics solutions, Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal, 30 (3): 363-365.
Abstract: Today, climate change is the greatest challenge for future generations. In particular, logistics is perceived as a key sector to contribute to sustainable development meeting the future generations’ needs in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions in a socially and economically responsible way. Green logistics involves all attempts to reduce the ecological impact of peoples’ mobility, traffic systems and of transport in regional and global supply chains including the reverse flow of products and materials.The primary objective of this special issue is to reflect the sustainable development of logistics from various perspectives preferably in an integrated and holistic approach and to examine research issues concerned with quantitative analysis and decision support for supply network design, freight transport and logistics infrastructure. For this special issue eight papers from 36 submissions have been selected for publication after a thorough peer-review according to the standards of the FSM journal.
Besiou, Maria, Alfonso J. Pedraza-Martinez and Luk N. Van Wassenhove (2018): OR applied to humanitarian operations, European Journal of Operational Research, 269 (2): 397-405.
Abstract: The humanitarian caseload is growing rapidly while funds are declining. The sector clearly will have to do more with less. Optimizing constrained resources is the strength of OR. Our discipline can strongly support humanitarian practitioners provided it works on pressing real problems and translates its research into easily implementable tools whose effectiveness can be verified. This Special Issue gathers a very rich and varied collection of papers along those principles. It clearly shows the value of OR and the many exciting research problems in this important area of humanitarian operations.
Schweisfurth, Tim G. and Christina Raasch (2018): Absorptive capacity for need knowledge: Antecedents and effects for employee innovativeness, Research Policy, 47 (4): 687-699.
Abstract: Abstract Innovation occurs when knowledge about unmet customer needs intersects with knowledge about technological solutions. Both knowledge types are often located outside the firm and need to be absorbed in order for innovation to occur. While there has been extensive research into absorptive capacity for solution knowledge, a necessary complement − absorptive capacity for new customer needs − has been neglected. In an individual-level study of 864 employees from a home appliance firm, we show that need absorptive capacity is theoretically and empirically distinct from solution absorptive capacity, and that both are positively associated with employee innovativeness. Interestingly, we find asymmetric extra-domain effects: prior solution knowledge is positively related to need absorptive capacity (cross-pollination effect), while prior need knowledge is negatively related to solution absorptive capacity (attenuation effect). We contrast the cognitive underpinnings of the two absorptive capacity types, contributing to emerging scholarly thinking on the domain-specificity and micro foundations of absorptive capacity.
Goel, Asvin (2018): Legal aspects in road transport optimization in Europe, Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 114: 144-162.
Abstract: Road freight transportation is subject to several legal requirements having direct impact on the practical applicability of routes and schedules. The vast majority of vehicle routing literature, so far, has largely focused on physical constraints such as capacity limits, or customer requirements such as time windows for pickups and deliveries. This paper studies legal requirements for long-distance haulage in the European Union, identifies some major gaps in the current state-of-the-art in vehicle routing, presents approaches for overcoming this gap, and analyzes the impact of the legal requirements studied.
Yu, Mingzhu, Jan C. Fransoo and Chung-Yee Lee (2018): Detention Decisions for Empty Containers in the Hinterland Transportation System, Transportation Research. Part B: Methodological, 110 (188-208).
Abstract: In this paper, we study a hinterland empty container transportation system<br/>which consists of a sea container terminal and an inland container terminal. There are a hinterland container operator who is in charge of the hinterland container transportation and an ocean carrier who has an empty container depot at the sea container terminal. We utilize a two-stage game model to describe the ocean carrier’s decision about the container’s free detention time and the hinterland container operator’s decision about the time when should an arrived empty container at the inland terminal be dispatched to the sea terminal. Optimal delivery policy of the empty container and the ocean carrier’s optimal free detention time are derived. It is shown that the decentralized system does not guarantee system coordination all the time. The ocean carrier has incentive to integrate the hinterland transportation operation only if the hinterland area is not very short of empty containers.
Edeling, Alexander and Alexander Himme (2018): When Does Market Share Matter? New Empirical Generalizations from a Meta-Analysis of the Market Share-Performance Relationship, Journal of Marketing, 82 (3): 1-24.
Abstract: The impact of market share on financial firm performance is one of the most widely studied relationships in marketing strategy research. However, since the meta-analysis by Szymanski, Bharadwaj, and Varadarajan (1993), substantial environmental (e.g., digitization) and methodological (e.g., accounting for endogeneity) developments have occurred. The current work presents an updated and extended meta-analysis based on all available 863 elasticities drawn from 89 studies and provides the following new empirical generalizations: (1) The average raw market share–financial performance elasticity is .132, which is substantially lower than the effectiveness of other intermediate marketing metrics. This result challenges a widely used strategy that solely focuses on increasing market share. (2) Elasticities differ significantly between contextual settings. For example, they are lower for business-to-business firms than for business-to-consumer firms, for service firms than for manufacturing firms, and for U.S. markets than for emerging and Western European markets. The authors also observe differences between countries with respect to a general time trend (e.g., lower elasticities in recent times for Western European markets) and recessionary periods (e.g., lower elasticities in the United States, higher elasticities in non-Western economies).
Brosi, Prisca, Matthias Spörrle and Isabell M. Welpe (2018): Do we work hard or are we just great? The effects of organizational pride due to effort and ability on proactive behavior, Business Research, 11 (2): 357-373.
Abstract: This study derives a conceptual framework for examining parallel and differential influences of organizational pride in employees’ efforts versus abilities on proactivity. Data from a field survey (N = 1218) confirm our theoretical model. Organizational pride in employees’ efforts and organizational pride in employees’ abilities both had positive indirect effects on proactive behaviors via affective organizational commitment. Yet, whereas organizational pride in employees’ efforts additionally had a direct positive effect on individual and team member proactivity, organizational pride in employees’ abilities showed a direct negative effect on proactive behaviors for the self, the team, and the organization including a behavioral measurement of employees’ provision of ideas for improvement. These findings contribute to the nascent literature on organizational pride by indicating towards employees as source of organizational pride, highlighting potential negative effects of organizational pride, and introducing the differentiation between employees’ efforts and abilities.
Larco-Martinelli, José A., Jan C. Fransoo and Vincent C.S. Wiers (2018): Scheduling the scheduling task: A time management perspective on scheduling, Cognition, Technology & Work, 20 (1): 1-20.
Abstract: Objective: To characterize how schedulers spend their time interacting with external parties.Background: Time is the most critical resource at the disposal of schedulers; however its usage has been overlooked by prior empirical studies. Methods: Seven schedulers for a total of nineteen 8-hour shifts where observed. Detailed time data about their activities and how these where interrupted was collected. Results: Schedulers interrupt themselves significantly and most of their activities are triggered externally. Despite this, schedulers are able to decide in most situations which activity to perform next. Schedulers spend more time on their informational role than on their decisional role; mostly at the requests of others, suggesting insufficient information system support to others in the organization.Conclusion: Schedulers other main role, besides making scheduling related decisions is to relay information. This implies that schedulers are subject to several external requests for activities. However, due to asynchronous communication that e-mails provide, they are still able to decide on their own schedule to do tasks.Application: The methodology used can be used to evaluate an individual use of time, in particular for time-critical such as scheduling. The analysis may provide insights as to how to improve the efficiency of such jobs.