The KLU faculty, post-docs, and PhD candidates regularly publish the results of their research in scientific journals. You will find a complete overview of all KLU publications below (e.g. articles in peer-reviewed journals, professional journals, books, working papers, and conference proceedings). Search for relevant terms and keywords, or filter the list by name, year of publication or type of publication. The references include DOIs and abstracts where available, and you can download them to your own reference database or platform. We regularly update the database with new publications.

Selected Publications

Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s10551-011-0897-7

Abstract: Traditionally, conceptualizations of human values are based on the assumption that individuals possess a single integrated value system comprising those values that people are attracted by and strive for. Recently, however, van Quaquebeke et al. (in J Bus Ethics 93:293–305, 2010) proposed that a value system might consist of two largely independent value orientations—an orientation of ideal values and an orientation of counter-ideal values (values that individuals are repelled by), and that both orientations exhibit antithetic effects on people’s responses to the social world. Following a call for further research on this distinction, we conducted two studies to assess the independent effects of ideal and counter-ideal values in leadership settings. Study 1 (N = 131) finds both value orientations to explain unique variance in followers’ vertical respect for their leaders. Study 2 (N = 136) confirms these results and additionally shows an analogous effect for followers’ identification with their leaders. Most importantly, we find that both value orientations exhibit their effects only independently when the content of the two orientations pertain to different value types in Schwartz’s (in J Soc Issues 50:19–46, 1994) circumplex model. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1080/00207543.2010.532910

Abstract: Tailored for a complex application in the process industry, this article examines a multi-product production planning and scheduling problem with sequence-dependent setup cost and times. The manufacturing process is characterised by a two-stage structure where the sequencing problem occurs on the first level and contribution margin, holding cost, penalty cost are accounted on the second level. We present a hybrid mixed-binary optimisation model based on the general lot-sizing and scheduling problem [Fleischmann, B. and Meyr, H. 1997. The general lotsizing and scheduling problem. OR Spectrum, 19 (1), 11–21], which combines discrete and continuous-time elements within a standard inventory and lot-size (I&L) formulation. Since the I&L formulation does not provide sharp linear programming-relaxation bounds, we present two alternative reformulations based on a transportation problem. In a numerical study inspired by real industry data, we show that on average, both reformulations yield significant improvements in computation time and integrality gap.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2011.041133

Abstract: Containerisation has transformed ocean shipping in a relatively standardised process. Possibilities to differentiate services exist nonetheless as a result of route densities, cargo and customer types, and shipment time sensitivity among other factors. Although yield management and product differentiation models have been extensively discussed in the airline sector, the topic has been the subject of relatively little investigation in liner shipping economics. This paper proposes a liner service differentiation model based on advance booking and explains in what cases two different classes of booking may be profitable. The paper structure is as follows: Section 1 introduces the topic; a review of the literature on pricing in liner shipping is presented in Section 2; this is followed by the explanation of how carriers may effectively price discriminate; Section 4 presents a simple model that accounts for advance booking and two classes of services; and Section 5 concludes.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.tre.2010.07.007

Abstract: This paper presents the results of nine independent studies that link a seaport container terminal’s long-run average quay crane rate to various strategic and tactical decisions made by the terminal operating company. New numerical results on yard capacity, fleet composition, truck substitutability, and terminal scalability issues are obtained using a fully-integrated, discrete event simulation model of a vessel-to-vessel transshipment terminal that is designed to reproduce the microscopic, stochastic, real-time environment at a multiple-berth facility. These are the first such studies to be conducted using a fully-integrated simulation model of a non-automated container terminal.

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Abstract: This study analyzes the effects of initial public offerings (IPO) on the performance of European football clubs. We use a unique panel dataset consisting of domestic and international performance data to investigate a football club’s on-field performance before and after going public. The study finds that the performance of football clubs does not improve on average with or after an IPO. Only football clubs in lower divisions benefit from a stock market listing. At the international level, there is no evidence of an improved performance associated with the IPO. The findings are consistent with shareholder ownership imposing tacit restrictions towards excessive debt and investments.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.ejor.2011.02.013

Abstract: In this paper, we consider a continuous review inventory system of a slow moving item for which the demand rate drops to a lower level at a known future time instance. The inventory system is controlled according to a one-for-one replenishment policy with a fixed lead time. Adapting to lower demand is achieved by changing the control policy in advance and letting the demand take away the excess stocks. We show that the timing of the control policy change primarily determines the tradeoff between backordering penalties and obsolescence costs. We propose an approximate solution for the optimal time to shift to the new control policy minimizing the expected total cost during the transient period. We find that the advance policy change results in significant cost savings and the approximation yields near optimal expected total costs.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpe.2011.01.022

Abstract: Lot-sizing and capacity planning are important supply chain decisions, and competition and cooperation affect the performance of these decisions. In this paper, we look into the dynamic lot-sizing and resource competition problem of an industry consisting of multiple firms. A capacity competition model combining the complexity of time-varying demand with cost functions and economies of scale arising from dynamic lot-sizing costs is developed. Each firm can replenish inventory at the beginning of each period in a finite planning horizon. Fixed as well as variable production costs incur for each production setup, along with inventory carrying costs. The individual production lots of each firm are limited by a constant capacity restriction, which is purchased up front for the planning horizon. The capacity can be purchased from a spot market, and the capacity acquisition cost fluctuates with the total capacity demand of all the competing firms. We solve the competition model and establish the existence of a capacity equilibrium over the firms and the associated optimal dynamic lot-sizing plan for each firm under mild conditions.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1080/13594320902978458

Abstract: Although leader–member exchange (LMX) research shows that leaders engage in different kinds of relationships with different followers, it remains somewhat of an enigma why one and the same relationship is often rated differently by a leader and the respective follower. We seek to fill that conceptual void by explaining when and why such LMX disagreement is likely to occur. To do so, we reconsider antecedents of LMX quality perceptions and outline how each party's LMX quality perception is primarily dependent on the perceived contributions of the other party, moderated by perceived own contributions. We then integrate the notion of Implicit Leadership and Followership Theories (ILTs and IFTs) to argue that the currencies of contributions differ between leaders and followers. This dyadic model sets the stage to explain that LMX disagreement can stem from (1) differences in both parties' ILTs as well as both parties' IFTs, but also from (2) differences in perceptions of own and other's behaviour. We conclude by discussing communication as a means of overcoming LMX disagreement and propose an array of potential studies along the lines of our conceptualization.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s10551-009-0087-z

Abstract: Research on work values shows that respectful leadership is highly desired by employees. On the applied side, however, the extant research does not offer many insights as to which concrete leadership behaviors are perceived by employees as indications of respectful leadership. Thus, to offer such insights, we collected and content analyzed employees’ narrations of encounters with respectful leadership (N 1 = 426). The coding process resulted in 19 categories of respectful leadership spanning 149 leadership behaviors. Furthermore, to also harness this comprehensive repertoire for quantitative organizational research, we undertook two more studies (N 2a = 228; N 2b = 412) to empirically derive a feasible item-based measurement of respectful leadership and assess its psychometric qualities. In these studies, we additionally investigated the relationships between respectful leadership as assessed with this new measurement and employees’ vertical and contextual followership as assessed via subordinates’ identification with their leaders, their appraisal respect for their leaders, their feeling of self-determination, and their job satisfaction.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:10.1111/j.1467-8691.2010.00569.x

Abstract: Traditionally the protection of intellectual property is regarded as a precondition for value capture. The rise of open source (OS) software and OS tangible products, so-called open design, has challenged this understanding. Openness is often regarded as a dichotomous variable (open-source vs. closed-source) and it is assumed that online developer communities demand full opening of the product’s source. In this paper we will explore openness as a gradual and multi-dimensional concept. We carried out an Internet survey (N = 270) among participants of 20 open design communities in the domain of IT hardware and consumer electronics. We find that open design projects pursue complex strategies short of complete openness and that communities value openness of software more highly than openness of hardware. Our findings suggest that open design companies can successfully implement strategies of partial openness to safeguard value capture without alienating their developer community.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s10551-011-0790-4

Abstract: To describe leadership as ethical is largely a perceptional phenomenon informed by beliefs about what is normatively appropriate. Yet there is a remarkable scarcity in the leadership literature regarding how to define what is “normatively appropriate.” To shed light on this issue, we draw upon Relational Models Theory (Fiske, 1992, Psychol Rev, 99:689–723), which differentiates between four types of relationships: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. We describe how each of these relationship models dictates a distinct set of normatively appropriate behaviors. We argue that perceptions of unethical leadership behavior result from one of three situations: (a) a mismatch between leader’s and follower’s relational models, (b) a different understanding about the behavioral expression, or preos, of the same relational model, or (c) a violation of a previously agreed upon relational model. Further, we argue that the type of relational model mismatch impacts the perceived severity of a transgression. Finally, we discuss the implications of our model with regard to understanding, managing, and regulating ethical leadership failures.

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Abstract: Beim Thema Geschäftsprozessmanagement (Business Process Management (BPM)) denken wir unweigerlich an Dokumentation und Werkzeugunterstützung für administrative Prozesse wie Kreditgenehmigungs-, Reisebuchungs- und Versicherungsantragsprozesse. Doch auch in anderen Domänen wie der Produktion, dem Systems Management, der Softwareentwicklung, der Forschung oder der Simulation etc. kommen Methoden und Techniken des Geschäftsprozessmanagements zunehmend zum Einsatz. In diesem Artikel stellen wir Anwendungsfälle und BPM-Lösungen für diese Domänen vor und beleuchten die Vorteile, die aus einem durchgängigen BPM-Ansatz entstehen.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1504/IJBPIM.2010.033173

Abstract: In the scientific field, workflow technology is often employed to conduct computer simulations or computer supported experiments. The underlying IT infrastructure typically comprises resources distributed among different institutes and organisations all over the world. Traditionally, workflows are executed on a single machine while the invoked software is accessed remotely. This approach imposes many drawbacks which are outlined in this paper. To address these weaknesses, we investigate the application of decentralised workflow enactment in the scientific domain. In this context, we explore the employment of process spaces, a middleware for the decentralised execution of workflows. Furthermore, we propose the combination of process spaces with the concept of data references to increase the overall performance of distributed simulations based on workflows. The considerations are discussed with the help of a scenario that calculates and visualises the ink diffusion in water over a period of time.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:10.1108/02683941011035304

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding of how transformational leadership relates to followers' innovation implementation behavior, the psychological mechanisms of this relationship, and the role of individual perceptions of climate for initiative. Perceptual data were collected from 198 employees in lower and middle management positions of a multinational automotive corporation. Relationships were tested using hierarchical regression analysis. Results demonstrate that transformational leadership was strongly related to followers' innovation implementation behavior and that the nature of this relationship was moderated by followers' levels of perceived climate for initiative. Additionally, commitment to change fully mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and followers' innovation implementation behavior. The paper is based on a cross‐sectional design. A causal interpretation requires studies with experimental or longitudinal designs. Companies should invest in transformational leadership training and in the selection of supervisors with this leadership style before initiating the implementation of innovations. Enhancing contextual factors, such as a perceived climate for initiative, should be promoted by integrating them into organizations' reward systems. The paper is one of the first to investigate the relationship between transformational leadership and followers' innovation implementation behavior. It specifies the organizational contexts under which transformational leadership is most likely related to innovation implementation behavior, and those in which such a relationship is unlikely to occur.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1123/jsep.32.1.3

Abstract: Many fouls committed in football (called soccer in some countries) are ambiguous, and there is no objective way of determining who is the "true" perpetrator or the "true" victim. Consequently, fans as well as referees often rely on a variety of decision cues when judging such foul situations. Based on embodiment research, which links perceptions of height to concepts of strength, power, and aggression, we argue that height is going to be one of the decision cues used. As a result, people are more likely to attribute a foul in an ambiguous tackle situation to the taller of two players. We find consistent support for our hypothesis, not only in field data spanning the last seven UEFA Champions League and German Bundesliga seasons, as well as the last three FIFA World Cups, but also in two experimental studies. The resulting dilemma for refereeing in practice is discussed.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s10551-009-0222-x

Abstract: Ideals (or ideal values) help people to navigate in social life. They indicate at a very fundamental level what people are concerned about, what they strive for, and what they want to be affiliated with. Transferring this to a leader–follower analysis, our first study (n = 306) confirms that followers’ identification and satisfaction with their leaders are stronger, the more leaders match followers’ ideal leader values. Study 2 (n = 244) extends the perspective by introducing the novel concept of counter-ideals (i.e., how an ideal leader should not be) as a second, non-redundant point of reference. Results confirm that a leader’s match on ideal and on counter-ideal values have independent effects in that both explain unique variance in followers’ identification and satisfaction with their leader. Study 3 (n = 136) replicates the previous results in an experimental scenario study and provides evidence for the proposed causal direction of the underlying process. We conclude that counter-ideal values might be an additional point of reference that people use to triangulate targets above and beyond ideal values and discuss the implications of our findings for value research and management.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1026/0932-4089/a000020

Abstract: Beim Erklimmen der Karriereleiter haben Frauen nach wie vor viele Hürden zu überwinden. Zur Erklärung einiger dieser Hürden verweist die Forschung auf Arbeiten zu impliziten Führungstheorien. Diese zeigen, dass bei den meisten Personen die Konzepte „Frau“ und „Führung“ schlechter kognitiv miteinander assoziiert sind als die Konzepte „Mann“ und „Führung“. Als Konsequenz, so der Schluss dieser Arbeiten, fällt es Personen im Vergleich schwerer, Frauen als Führungskräfte zu kategorisieren und entsprechend auf diese zu reagieren. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird untersucht, ob eine inkongruente Stimulation diesem diskriminierenden impliziten Assoziationsmuster entgegenwirken kann. Die Resultate unseres Experimentes mit einem Impliziten Assoziationstest (IAT; N = 77) zeigen, dass Probanden nach Vorlage von Bildern bekannter weiblicher Führungskräfte Frauen ähnlich schnell mit Führung assoziieren können wie Männer. Dieser Effekt trat allerdings stärker bei den Teilnehmerinnen auf, während bei den Teilnehmern keine signifikante Veränderung in der Reaktionszeit gefunden wurde. Hierauf aufbauend diskutieren wir, welche Rolle Bilder im Rahmen von organisationalen Gleichstellungsbestrebungen, beispielsweise als Teil der Unternehmenskommunikation, einnehmen können.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1057/jors.2009.80

Abstract: The paper presents an empirical method to infer employers' requirements of operational research (OR) skills by analysing the text of online job ads using content analysis. The method entailed collecting more than a thousand job ads from online sources, creating a hierarchy of sets of OR-related words and phrases, and then analysing the job ads using content analysis software to count the numbers of ads using the hierarchy of words and phrases. The method is particularly well suited for the periodic analysis of job ads to understand changes and trends, and is replicable in that, when carried out using our proposed keywords, it would yield the same results for any set of OR job ads.

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