The KLU faculty, post-docs, and PhD candidates regularly publish the results of their research in scientific journals. You will find a complete overview of all KLU publications below (e.g. articles in peer-reviewed journals, professional journals, books, working papers, and conference proceedings). Search for relevant terms and keywords, or filter the list by name, year of publication or type of publication. The references include DOIs and abstracts where available, and you can download them to your own reference database or platform. We regularly update the database with new publications.

Journal Articles (Peer-Reviewed)

Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s10551-011-0997-4

Abstract: In this article, we hypothesize that leaders who display group-oriented values (i.e., values that focus on the welfare of the group rather than on the self-interest of the leader) will be evaluated more positively by their followers than leaders who do not display group-oriented values. Importantly, we expected these effects to be more pronounced for leaders who are ingroup members (i.e., stemming from the same social group as their followers) than for leaders who are outgroup members (i.e., leaders stemming from a different social group than their followers). We tested our hypotheses in two studies. Results of a field study (N = 95) showed the expected relationship between leaders’ group-oriented values and followers’ identification with their leaders. A scenario study (N = 137) replicated the results and extended it to followers’ endorsement of their leaders. Overall, these findings suggest that displaying group-oriented values pays off more for ingroup than for outgroup leaders.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.jocrd.2012.07.001

Abstract: Online surveys are gaining increasing momentum in clinical research. Ease of recruitment and low cost are two of the biggest advantages of Internet studies. There are, however, concerns about their reliability and validity.The present study compared the psychometric properties of self-report instruments measuring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) across three samples: (1) participants with a confirmed diagnosis of OCD (n=66), (2) participants with a probable diagnosis of OCD (n=86) and (3) clinical experts on OCD and students who were asked to pretend to have OCD (n=121). Psychometric indices of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (Y-BOCS) and the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (OCI-R) served as indicators for reliability and validity.Both patient samples revealed good retest reliability scores and good correlations between Y-BOCS and OCI-R scores. In contrast, the expert group showed poor retest reliabilities and mixed results for the intercorrelations between OCI-R and Y-BOCS scores. Simulators display a marked tendency to over-report symptoms on the OCI-R.Good psychometric properties of online studies may serve as a proxy for the validity of diagnoses.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1155/2012/384039

Abstract: Theoretical models ascribe jumping to conclusions (JTCs) a prominent role in the pathogenesis of paranoia. While many earlier studies corroborated this account, some newer investigations have found no or only small associations of the JTC bias with paranoid symptoms. The present study examined whether these inconsistencies in part reflect methodological differences across studies. The study was built upon the psychometric high-risk paradigm. A total of 1899 subjects from the general population took part in an online survey and were administered the Paranoia Checklist as well as one of two different variants of the probabilistic reasoning task: one variant with a traditional instruction (a) and one novel variant that combines probability estimates with decision judgments (b). Factor analysis of the Paranoia Checklist yielded an unspecific suspiciousness factor and a psychotic paranoia factor. The latter was significantly associated with scores indicating hasty decision making. Subjects scoring two standard deviations above the mean of the Paranoia Checklist showed an abnormal data-gathering style relative to subjects with normal scores. Findings suggest that the so-called decision threshold parameter is more sensitive than the conventional JTC index. For future research the specific contents of paranoid beliefs deserve more consideration in the investigation of decision making in schizophrenia as JTC seems to be associated with core psychosis-prone features of paranoia only.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1080/0144929X.2010.535969

Abstract: Decision support systems (DSS) play an important role in supporting scheduling tasks in industrial settings. In this paper, a special aspect of DSS for scheduling, namely their development, implementation and usage in relation to user participation, is examined. The outlined research model proposes that different forms of user participation lead to different levels of model complexity. This complexity influences in turn such outcome variables like system performance and user satisfaction. The research model integrates several existing concepts from technology acceptance, planned behaviour, involvement, and participation research as well as control theory. These theories are expanded by the dynamics of the modelling process. For the empirical analysis, multiple case studies examining different cases of DSS development and implementation processes in different settings were conducted.

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Copy reference link   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbankfin.2011.05.019

Abstract: This paper studies the spread of the Global Financial Crisis of 2007–2009 from the financial sector to the real economy by examining ten sectors in 25 major developed and emerging stock markets. The analysis tests different channels of financial contagion across countries and sectors and finds that the crisis led to an increased co-movement of returns among financial sector stocks across countries and between financial sector stocks and real economy stocks. The results demonstrate that no country and sector was immune to the adverse effects of the crisis limiting the effectiveness of portfolio diversification. However, there is clear evidence that some sectors in particular Healthcare, Telecommunications and Technology were less severely affected by the crisis.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.2142283

Abstract: Gold has been a store of value for centuries and a safe haven for investors in the pastdecades. However, the increased investment in gold for speculative or hedging purposes has changed the safe haven property. We demonstrate theoretically and empirically that investor behaviour has the potential to destroy the safe haven property of gold. The results suggest that an asset cannot be both an investment asset and an effective safe haven asset. This finding has important implications for financial stability since assets are more likely to exhibit excess comovement and volatility in the absence of a safe haven.

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Abstract: The paradigmatic shiftin marketing from the beginning of the 1990’s has transformed the study of economic exchange, towards addressing more the relational aspects of these exchanges, where relationship specificity has replaced transaction specificity. This is particularly true in transnational supply exchanges, where specialization and outsourcing have increased the importance of effective and efficient management of buyer-supplier relationships, and their corresponding networks in which they are embedded in. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of selected dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships within a specific TNC business-to-business (B2B) setting on supply relationship performance from the suppliers’ perspective. The paper analyzes the impact of the functional aspect of the business network context on selected elements of buyer-supplier relationships, particular in terms of the impact on business performance. This is analyzed within a confirmatory testing of a reflective structural equation model. A unique feature of the model is its focus on the business network, which is operationalized through 2 dimensions, which are related to (a) network-based information and (b) network spillover effects, as key determinants of the "traditional" elements of buyer-supplier relationships (i.e. transaction-specific investments, trust, flexibility, and joint actions). The dataset includes a sample of 157 suppliers of the focal TNC world-wide (47.9 response rate on a web-based survey). In the end, the paper provides a series of managerial implications to be considered, focusing on the so called network management perspective and the role of a wider business network context.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s11761-011-0095-6

Abstract: Service composition is a well-established field of research in the service community. Services are commonly regarded as black boxes with well-defined interfaces that can be recursively aggregated into new services. The black-box nature of services does not only include the service implementation but also implies the use of middleware and hardware to run the services. Thus, service composition techniques are typically limited to choosing between a set of available services. In this paper, we keep the black-box nature and the principle of information hiding of services, but in addition we break up services vertically. By introducing vertical service composition, we allow services to be provisioned on demand using the middleware and runtime environment that specifically meets user-required quality of services. Therefore, a service is setup individually for services requestors instead of providing them with a pre-determined list of available services to choose from. We introduce the concept of vertical service composition and present an extension to an enterprise service bus that implements the concept of vertical service composition by combining concepts from provisioning with those of (dynamic) service binding.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.cor.2011.05.021

Abstract: In September 2008 new regulations for managing heavy vehicle driver fatigue entered into force in Australia. According to the new regulations there is a chain of responsibility ranging from drivers to dispatchers and shippers and thus, carriers must explicitly consider driving and working hour regulations when generating truck driver schedules. This paper presents and studies the Australian Truck Driver Scheduling Problem (AUS-TDSP) which is the problem of determining whether a sequence of locations can be visited within given time windows in such a way that driving and working activities of truck drivers comply with Australian Heavy Vehicle Driver Fatigue Law.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.cor.2011.12.016

Abstract: In Canada transport companies must ensure that truck drivers can comply with Canadian Commercial Vehicle Drivers Hours of Service Regulations. Canadian regulations comprise the provisions found in US hours of service regulations as well as additional constraints on the maximum amount of driving and the minimum amount of off-duty time on each day. This paper presents a mixed integer programming formulation and an iterative dynamic programming approach for minimising the duration of truck driver schedules complying with Canadian hours of service regulations. Computational experiments show that schedule durations can be significantly reduced compared with a previously presented approach which only focuses on feasibility.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.ejor.2011.11.030

Abstract: Nowadays, especially in developed countries, the traditional collection of end-of-use products by scavengers has been displaced by formal waste recovery systems. However, scavenging still exists, especially in places with collection capacity shortages and/or low living standards. Besides its obvious social implications, the financial and environmental aspects of scavenging are certainly not trivial. Informal recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by scavengers not only constrains profits of the formal system. In their effort to recover the value of end-of-use products, scavengers also pollute the environment if toxic substances leak when WEEE is not properly disposed of. We investigate the impact of scavenging on the operations of the formal recovery system of WEEE, under three regulatory measures, using system dynamics methodology. By using data from a real world closed-loop supply chain that operates in Greece extended numerical experimentation revealed that a legislation incorporating scavengers into the formal waste recovery system (instead of either ignoring or prohibiting their participation) is beneficial for economical, environmental and social sustainability.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s10696-011-9104-5

Abstract: Due to rapid increases in the automotive markets in emerging economies, leading car manufacturers rapidly expand their manufacturing capacity in countries such as China. A certain portion of key performance components however continue to be sourced from developed countries. We study such a manufacturer that imports high-value components from a developed country. There are two available transportation modes: a slow mode with low cost and long and stochastic lead time, and a fast mode with high cost and short and deterministic lead time. Moreover, the manufacturer is subject to a credit constraint that bounds both the inwarehouse inventory and the number of outstanding orders (because it needs to pay for the components in advance). Consequently, the cheapest hedge against demand and supply uncertainty—inventory—is only available to a limited extent and the decision maker must turn to using the fast transportation mode for a much larger share of the orders. We model the manufacturer’s ordering policy and study its performance using simulation. Our study shows the adverse effects that the credit limit has on the growth opportunities of such companies in developing countries that import high-value components or other goods from developed countries. We show that especially the reduction in lead time variability can substantially reduce these adverse effects. Realizing that this variability is primarily caused by the import customs procedures, governments in developing economies have a means to assist their local manufacturers.

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Copy reference link   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jempfin.2011.12.002

Abstract: The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive description of the dependence pattern of stock returns by studying a range of quantiles of the conditional return distribution using quantile autoregression. This enables us to study the behavior of extreme quantiles associated with large positive and negative returns in contrast to the central quantile which is closely related to the conditional mean in the least-squares regression framework. Our empirical results are based on 30 years of daily, weekly and monthly returns of the stocks comprised in the Dow Jones Stoxx 600 index. We find that lower quantiles exhibit positive dependence on past returns while upper quantiles are marked by negative dependence. This pattern holds when accounting for stock specific characteristics such as market capitalization, industry, or exposure to market risk.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s00187-012-0157-8

Abstract: Cost reduction is usually confronted with conflicts and resistance. Besides planning and controlling measures the management accounting literature discusses behavioral and organizational factors (e.g., top management commitment, participation, cost culture) in order to overcome this resistance. Thus, from a theoretical perspective different concepts exist for implementing an effective long-term cost reduction. However, only little empirical research can be found that investigates the relative importance of “soft” behavioral and implementation factors compared to general planning and control measures. This study examines the role of behavioral and organizational (“soft”) factors in comparison to planning and control (“hard”) factors in cost reduction projects. Target costing or activity-based costing projects represent examples for strategic cost reduction projects which are considered in this study. The sample comprises 131 chief management accountants of medium-size and large German companies which were involved in such strategic cost reduction projects. Structural equation modeling is used for deriving the results. The results show that cost culture, top management commitment, and participation are of particular importance for the success of cost reductions. Their influence drives significantly planning and controlling measures which in turn determine the effectiveness of cost reduction measures.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.3905/jai.2012.14.4.026

Abstract: The volatility of equity returns generally exhibits an asymmetric reaction to positive and negative shocks. Economic explanations for this phenomenon are leverage and a volatility feedback effect. This article studies the volatility of gold and demonstrates that there is an inverted asymmetric reaction to positive and negative shocks—positive shocks increase volatility more than negative shocks. The author argues that this effect is related to the safe-haven property of gold. Investors interpret positive gold price changes as a signal for future adverse conditions and uncertainty in other asset markets. This introduces uncertainty in the gold market and thus higher volatility. The empirical results hold for gold bullion and gold coins denominated in different currencies and for different return frequencies, sample periods, and distributional assumptions. Finally, the author shows that the inverted volatility effect of gold can lower the aggregate risk of a portfolio for specific correlation levels.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.ejor.2011.09.028

Abstract: One of the latest developments in network revenue management (RM) is the incorporation of customer purchase behavior via discrete choice models. Many authors presented control policies for the booking process that are expressed in terms of which combination of products to offer at a given point in time and given resource inventories. However, in many implemented RM systems—most notably in the hotel industry—bid price control is being used, and this entails the problem that the recommended combination of products as identified by these policies might not be representable through bid price control. If demand were independent from available product alternatives, an optimal choice of bid prices is to use the marginal value of capacity for each resource in the network. But under dependent demand, this is not necessarily the case. In fact, it seems that these bid prices are typically not restrictive enough and result in buy-down effects.We propose (1) a simple and fast heuristic that iteratively improves on an initial guess for the bid price vector; this first guess could be, for example, dynamic estimates of the marginal value of capacity. Moreover, (2) we demonstrate that using these dynamic marginal capacity values directly as bid prices can lead to significant revenue loss as compared to using our heuristic to improve them. Finally, (3) we investigate numerically how much revenue performance is lost due to the confinement to product combinations that can be represented by a bid price.The heuristic is not restricted to a particular choice model and can be combined with any method that provides us with estimates of the marginal values of capacity. In our numerical experiments, we test the heuristic on some popular networks examples taken from peer literature. We use a multinomial logit choice model which allows customers from different segments to have products in common that they consider to purchase. In most problem instances, our heuristic policy results in significant revenue gains over some currently available alternatives at low computational cost.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1515/rmeef-2012-0004

Abstract: This paper estimates the Beveridge curve of Egypt for the period from 2004 to 2010, using quarterly data for both the private sector and the public sector. Our results confirm the negative relationship between unemployment and private job offers for the Egyptian labor market. The Beveridge curve has shifted inwards during the observation period, indicating an improved matching process between labor supply and private labor demand. However, the results for the public sector are poor, showing the Beveridge curve relation cannot be used to explain the relationship between government sector vacancy rates and the unemployment rate.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.4155/cmt.12.62

Abstract: This article examines the different approaches that companies can take to setting targets for the reduction of carbon emissions from their logistics operations. The research suggests that target-setting practices differ widely in this field. It is common for firms simply to apply corporate-level targets to logistics, despite the fact that carbon abatement potential and cost–effectiveness vary by function and activity. A small minority of firms have systematically analyzed the possible carbon savings from specific interventions and technologies. To improve their credibility and consistency, carbon reduction targets need to conform to certain principles. The article proposes a series of principles applicable to the decarbonization of logistics. It is based mainly on a literature review, semi-structured interviews with a sample of logistics managers and involvement in an industry-wide initiative to cut logistics-related carbon emissions.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s10951-012-0282-0

Abstract: Transport companies seek to maximise vehicle utilisation and minimise labour costs. Both goals can be achieved if the time required to fulfil a sequence of transportation tasks is minimised. However, if schedule durations are too short drivers may not have enough time for recuperation and road safety is impaired. In Australia transport companies must ensure that truck drivers can comply with Australian Heavy Vehicle Driver Fatigue Law and schedules must give enough time for drivers to take the amount of rest required by the regulation. This paper shows how transport companies can minimise the duration of truck driver schedules complying with Australian Heavy Vehicle Driver Fatigue Law. A mixed integer programming formulation is presented and valid inequalities are given. Computational experiments show that these inequalities provide significant reduction in computational effort when using one of the most advanced commercial mixed integer programming solver.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1057/jibs.2012.15

Abstract: We argue that leader-directed voice (i.e., communicating critical suggestions for change to the leader) is a relational phenomenon, and that it is affected by an inherent feature of multinational teams: members’ (dis)similarities in nationality. We tested our hypotheses in a sample of middle managers who were working in multinational teams. The results of this study show that leaders of multinational teams are more likely to profit from the local know-how of employees from underrepresented nationalities when they are open to their ideas, and when they have the same nationality. The study also shows that the effects of being open to employees’ ideas and sharing the same nationality are mediated by affective commitment and psychological safety, respectively. We discuss how, even though the current relational demography perspective with its dichotomous understanding of (dis)similarity is not suited to capture the dynamics of cultural differences, it does set the stage for future studies to examine the cultural dynamics behind an individual's experience of being different from other team members in multinational teams. We also discuss the practical implications of these findings for multinational companies.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1525/cmr.2012.54.3.98

Abstract: Outsourcing initiatives are key to firm efforts to focus on core competencies, alter engrained practices and attain significant cost reductions in non-core processes. Extensive thought goes into the selection of outsourcing service providers, with the aim of enlisting vendors that have the competence and reputation to lower cost and enhance service levels. However, in addition to traditional fee-for-service outsourcing, another option is to develop a new enterprise that is wholly or partially owned by the outsourcing entity to take on the activities that are externalized—a so-called “enterprise partnership.” This article examines one of the first examples of such a partnership: BAE Systems' efforts to outsource its HR services in collaboration with Xchanging. It tracks the evolution of the resulting enterprise partnership from the perspective of both the new vendor and the outsourcing firm. The article also discusses the need for explicit contractual recognition of key phases of the outsourcing life cycle as a means to reduce inevitable in-process conflict. Understanding the divergence of interests that naturally emerge is critical to realizing the long-term promise that enterprise partnerships offer.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2012.08.049

Abstract: The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a highly prevalent public policy goal among European Union member countries. In the new White Paper on transport, the role of road freight transports in this is strongly emphasized. This far, however, the efficiency practices utilised in logistics firms are less studied. Drawing from policy goals and new survey data on 295 road transport firms our results show that hauliers are aware of the possible energy efficiency actions but lack the knowledge and resources to fully utilize them. Energy efficiency seems also to be unimportant for many shippers, so there are no incentives for hauliers to improve it. Examples from various countries show that clear energy efficiency improvements can be achieved with active cooperation between hauliers, shippers and policy makers. Such cooperation can be developed in Finland through the sectoral energy efficiency agreements. The novelty and the utility of these results allow scholars to answer important open questions in the national-level determinants of enhancing energy efficiency practices among road freight hauliers, and contribute to our understanding of how these can be fostered in public policies.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1287/trsc.1110.0382

Abstract: The U.S. truck driver scheduling problem (US-TDSP) is the problem of visiting a sequence of λ locations within given time windows in such a way that driving and working activities of truck drivers comply with U.S. hours-of-service regulations. In the case of single time windows it is known that the US-TDSP can be solved in O(λ3) time. In this paper, we present a scheduling method for the US-TDSP that solves the single time window problem in O(λ2) time. We show that in the case of multiple time windows the same complexity can be achieved if the gap between subsequent time windows is at least 10 hours. This situation occurs, for example, if, because of opening hours of docks, handling operations can only be performed between 8.00 a.m. and 10.00 p.m. Furthermore, we empirically show that for a wide range of other problem instances the computational effort is not much higher if multiple time windows are considered.

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Abstract: Marketing budget decisions are critical and should be fact based rather than intuitive. Profit can be improved by better allocating a fixed budget across products or regions. The Excel-based decision support model presented in this article makes it possible to determine near-optimal marketing budgets and represents an innovative and feasible solution to the dynamic marketing allocation budget problem for multi-product, multi-country firms. The model accounts for marketing dynamics and a product's growth potential as well as for trade-offs with respect to marketing effectiveness and profit contribution. It was successfully implemented at Bayer, one of the world's largest firms in the pharmaceuticals and chemicals business. The profit improvement potential in this company was more than 50 % and worth nearly EUR 500 million in incremental discounted cash flows.

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