The KLU faculty, post-docs, and PhD candidates regularly publish the results of their research in scientific journals. You will find a complete overview of all KLU publications below (e.g. articles in peer-reviewed journals, professional journals, books, working papers, and conference proceedings). Search for relevant terms and keywords, or filter the list by name, year of publication or type of publication. The references include DOIs and abstracts where available, and you can download them to your own reference database or platform. We regularly update the database with new publications.

Journal Articles (Peer-Reviewed)

Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.ejor.2005.10.040

Abstract: In this paper we apply linear control theory to study the effect of various inventory policies on order and inventory variability, which are key drivers of supply chain performance. In particular, we study a two-echelon supply chain with a stationary demand pattern under the influence of three inventory policies: an inventory-on-hand policy that bases orders on the visible inventory at an installation, an installation-stock policy that bases orders on the inventory position (on-hand plus on-order inventory) at an installation, and an echelon-stock policy that bases orders on the inventory position at that installation and all downstream installations. We prove analytically that the inventory-on-hand policy is unstable in practical settings, confirming analytically what has been observed in experimental settings and in practice. We also prove that the installation-stock and echelon-stock policies are stable and analyze their effect on order and inventory fluctuation. Specifically, we show the general superiority of the echelon-stock in our setting and demonstrate analytically the effect of forecasting parameters on order and inventory fluctuations, confirming the results in other research.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s11612-007-0015-6

Abstract: Due to a rising interest in empirical ‘respect’ research but at the same time a somewhat fuzzy use of the term and its semantically close neighbors, we introduce a conceptual framework. The framework draws on existing philosophical traditions and empirical psychological works alike. It is pointed out that respect, acceptance, and tolerance are all attitudes of a subject towards an object which are not aligned on one dimension, but are concerned with quite different issues. Moreover, we propose that research needs to differentiate between two very different kinds of respect. Whereas appraisal respect, acceptance, and tolerance are attitudinal reflections of a subject’s decisions on certain issues (i.e., on influence, membership, and presence), recognition respect is proposed to be an overarching processing mode, i.e., a general attitude on how to confront others.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.3233/MGS-2007-3303

Abstract: Service compositions enable users to realize their complex needs as a single request. Despite intensive research, especially in the area of business processes, web services and grids, an open and valid question is still how to manage service compositions in order to satisfy both functional and non-functional requirements as well as adapt to dynamic changes. This article describes an approach towards adaptive management of QoS aware service compositions. This approach integrates well known concepts and techniques and proposes various execution strategies based on dynamic selection and negotiation of services included in a service composition, contracting based on service level agreements, service enactment with flexible support for exception handling, monitoring of service level objectives, and profiling of execution data. An important element of the approach is an open architecture for adaptive service composition management. Its first prototypical implementation has been developed within an EU-funded Adaptive Service Grid project.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1287/opre.1070.0420

Abstract: Bollapragada and Morton (1999) present several well-performing heuristics for solving the periodic inventory problem with random yield and demand. Their approach is essentially based on a transformation of the single-period problem into a standard newsvendor problem with deterministic yield and random demand which, however, is supply dependent. In our note, we show that their evaluation of the respective optimality condition is not correct. This explains the steady deterioration of their myopic heuristics for parameter constellations that correspond to increasing service levels. Some computational investigations reveal that the performance of the heuristics can become quite poor if service levels are high and exceed those values for which results are reported in the original study. Nonetheless, up to now these heuristics are still the best ones available for solving the joint random yield problem.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.jors.2602410

Abstract: The consumer electronics industry is a $240 billion global industry with a small number of highly competitive global players. We describe many of the risks associated with any global supply chain in this industry. As illustration, we also list steps that Samsung Electronics and its subsidiary, Samsung Electronics UK, have taken to mitigate these risks. Our description of the risks and illustration of mitigation efforts provides the backdrop to identify areas of future research.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1080/07408170600967149

Abstract: In this paper we apply linear control theory to study the effect of various inventory policies on order and inventory variability, which are key drivers of supply chain performance. In particular, we study a two-echelon supply chain with a stationary demand pattern under the influence of three inventory policies: an inventory-on-hand policy that bases orders on the visible inventory at an installation, an installation-stock policy that bases orders on the inventory position (on-hand plus on-order inventory) at an installation, and an echelon-stock policy that bases orders on the inventory position at that installation and all downstream installations. We prove analytically that the inventory-on-hand policy is unstable in practical settings, confirming analytically what has been observed in experimental settings and in practice. We also prove that the installation-stock and echelon-stock policies are stable and analyze their effect on order and inventory fluctuation. Specifically, we show the general superiority of the echelon-stock in our setting and demonstrate analytically the effect of forecasting parameters on order and inventory fluctuations, confirming the results in other research.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1080/01441640600825952

Abstract: Between 1997 and 2004, gross domestic product increased in real terms in the UK by one‐fifth, while the volume of road freight movement remained stable. This suggests that the long‐awaited decoupling of economic and freight transport growth has begun, possibly leading to a new era of sustainable logistics. This paper reviews previous research on the decoupling issue and recent trends in gross domestic product/freight tonne‐km elasticities in Europe and the USA. It then examines 12 possible causes of the observed decoupling in the UK using published statistics from a wide range of British and European sources. This analysis indicates that around two‐thirds of the decoupling is due to three factors whose impact can be quantified: the increased penetration of the British road haulage market by foreign operators, a decline in road transport’s share of the freight market, and real increases in road freight rates. Several other factors, most notably the relative growth of the service sector, the diminishing rate of centralization, and the off‐shoring of manufacturing, appear to be having a significant effect, though this finding cannot be measured on the basis of available statistics. The paper concludes that, while the decoupling is in the right direction from a public policy standpoint, the net environmental benefits are likely to be quite modest.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1080/13675560701478075

Abstract: Efforts to maintain high service levels upstream of the shop are often compromised by poor in-store replenishment, which causes the system to fail at the final point of sale, where availability has its greatest impact on consumer behaviour and sales. This paper reports the results of a study of the on-shelf availability (OSA) of three categories of product: dairy products, frozen foods and health and beauty (H&B) items. Data from a quarterly, industry-sponsored survey of OSA were analysed to assess availability trends and patterns. Interviews were conducted with consumers at shop checkouts to determine how they reacted when products were out-of-stock. This revealed marked differences in behavioural responses to stockouts in the three product groups. Interviews were also held with supermarket managers to explore the reasons for stockouts occurring and to seek their views on a range of corrective measures. As H&B items exhibited the highest average stockout rate, a further investigation was conducted on particular replenishment problems of this category of product. This included an analysis of stockouts in two sub-categories of H&B product at stock-keeping unit (SKU) level. Various methods of increasing OSA are proposed, including staff training, overhauling the shelf-replenishment process, improving inventory accuracy, the redesign of packaging and more effective use of planograms.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.15358/0344-1369-2007-1-8

Abstract: Managers facing the introduction of usage innovations have to cope with three interrelated problems: Which products are suitable for which segments, how to determine the characteristics of the segments for targeting them, and how to optimize the prices of bundles. We show that this can be achieved by applying a latent class analysis based on data obtained with the help of choice-based conjoint experiments. Using survey data on services in digital TV as an example, the authors show how strategic implications for product configuration, targeting, and bundle pricing can be derived. A comparison with real market data indicate that the results obtained by this procedure are highly plausible.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.ejor.2005.11.011

Abstract: In order to obtain a competitive level of productivity in a manufacturing system, efficient machine or department arrangements and appropriate transportation path structures are of considerable importance. By defining a production system’s basic structure and material flows, the layout determines its operational performance over the long term. However, most approaches proposed in the literature provide only a block layout, which neglects important operational details. By contrast, in this paper, we introduce approaches to planning layouts at a more detailed level. Hence, this present paper introduces an integrated approach which allows a more detailed layout planning by simultaneously determining machine arrangement and transportation paths. Facilities to be arranged as well as the entire layout may have irregular shapes and sizes. By assigning specific attributes to certain layout subareas, application-dependent barriers within the layout, like existing walls or columns, can be incorporated. We introduce a new mathematical layout model and develop several improvement procedures. An analysis of the computational experiments shows that more elaborate heuristics using variable neighborhoods can generate promising layout configurations.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s11573-007-0040-5

Abstract: Previous empirical research on order of entry effects shows strong evidence for the existence of a first-mover advantage. Conventional strategic recommendations are therefore based on the assumption that pioneering is preferable in order to create competitive advantages. However, theoretical work has argued that there are also considerable potential advantages for early movers. But this hypothesis lacks empirical evidence, which is due to the limitations of previous empirical research designs. On the one hand, early movers have not been precisely separated from pioneers and late movers. On the other hand, previous research designs often specified a monotone relationship between order of entry and a success variable. As a consequence, it was not possible to find an inverted u-shaped relationship supporting the early mover advantage hypothesis. In this study, authors propose ways to overcome these limitations. An empirical application to 12 pharmaceutical markets finds a surprising early mover advantage that contrasts with the conventional wisdom in this industry.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1287/opre.1070.0392

Abstract: We consider a family of N items which are produced in or obtained from the same production facility. Demands are deterministic for each item and each period within a given horizon of T periods. If in a given period an order is placed, setup costs are incurred. The aggregate order size is constrained by a capacity limit. The objective is to find a lot-sizing strategy that satisfies the demands for all items over the entire horizon without backlogging, and which minimizes the sum of inventory carrying, fixed and variable order costs. All demands, cost parameters and capacity limits may be time-dependent. In the basic (JS)-model, the setup cost of an order does not depend on the composition of the order. The (JIS)-model allows for item-dependent setup costs in addition to the joint setup costs.We develop and analyze a class of so-called progressive interval heuristics. A progessive interval heuristic solves a (JS) or (JIS) problem over a progressively larger time-interval, always starting with period 1, but fixing the setup variables of a progressively larger number of periods at their optimal values in earlier iterations. Different variants in this class of heuristics allow for different degrees of flexibility in adjusting continuous variables determined in earlier iterations of the algorithm.For the (JS)-model and the two basic implementations of the progressive interval heuristics, we show under some mild parameter conditions, that the heuristics can be designed to be epsilon-optimal for any desired value of epsilon > 0 with a running time that is polynomially bounded in the size of the problem. They can also be designed to be simultaneously asymptotically optimal and polynomially bounded.A numerical study covering both the (JS) and the (JIS) model, shows that a progressive interval heuristic generates close-to-optimal solutions with modest computational effort and that it can be effectively used to solve large-scale problems.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1109/TEM.2007.893985

Abstract: Although there is a growing amount of theoretical literature, only limited attention has been allocated to empirically determine the relative influence of a broad set of strategic success factors of e-business companies across several industries. We concentrate on the impact of marketing strategies and chosen business models and differentiate between direct and indirect drivers on revenue and profitability in order to estimate the total effect of a certain strategy or business model. Based on a survey of 147 e-businesses from different industries we empirically test, with the help of seemingly unrelated regression models, the relative importance of the various strategy elements. Our estimation results show that business models where the firm profits from transactions (e.g., via fixed access or usage fees) and is able to sell pricy products and services are well suited to reach profitability. The by far most important element of the marketing strategy is the achieved customer satisfaction, which has a significant and strong effect on revenue, but only a moderate direct effect on profitability. Due to our modeling approach we find that the total elasticity of this element of the marketing strategy is driven by the indirect effect from revenue on profitability

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1108/17440080710829234

Abstract: Purpose – Service‐oriented architecture (SOA) is an architecture paradigm targeting integration of applications within and across enterprise boundaries. It has gathered research and industry acceptance and has given an enormous impetus to the business process management technology. Web service (WS) technology is one implementation of the SOA paradigm. It enables seamless integration of new and legacy applications through a stack of standardized composable specifications. WS orchestration is facilitated by the Business Process Execution Language which provides a recursive service composition model. While the programming model the WS technology provides is very flexible, a major deficiency is the need to discover services implementing a particular abstract interface, whereas functional similarities of services are disregarded. The Semantic Web Service technologies, like Web Service Modelling Ontology (WSMO) and Web Ontology Language for Services have been developed with the purpose of eliminating these deficiencies by enabling service discovery based on functional and non‐functional properties. The paper aims to focus on these issues.Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents a list of requirements that business processes impose on SOA applications. It analyzes the support that WSMO/Web Service Model eXecution environment (WSMX) provides to address these requirements and compares it with the support enabled by the WS specification stack.Findings – The paper identifies major flaws in the WSMO model and its reference implementation with respect to business process support.Originality/value – The paper recommends possible solutions for eliminating the lack of needed features on behalf of WSMO/WSMX. It presents in detail how to enable asynchronous stateful communication among WSMO WS and partner‐based WS discovery by extending the WSMO model. Additionally, it extends the API of the reference implementation to facilitate the execution of services communicating asynchronously.

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Abstract: Differences in diesel fuel prices can significantly distort competition both between and within domestic road haulage markets. This is well illustrated by the case of the UK, where diesel fuel prices are by far the highest in the EU. The paper examines the effects of high and rising fuel prices on cabotage penetration in the UK road freight market and reviews a series of measures that have been proposed to ‘level the playing field’ between British and foreign hauliers. Within domestic haulage markets, carriers also vary in the extent to which they can recover fuel price increases from shippers. The paper reviews recent empirical evidence on this subject collected in the UK and outlines several methods of compensating hauliers for fuel price rises.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/BF03371693

Abstract: This article discusses the often ignored impact of sample selection bias in empirical research in business administration. Our empirical application based on the motion picture industry underlines the importance of this procedure. We find a significant impact of a nomination for the Academy Award (Oscar), if we follow the standard estimation procedures from the literature using regression analysis. However, if we correct our sample for the selection bias we do not find a significant impact of an Oscar nomination on box office anymore.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1108/09600030710840822

Abstract: This paper aims to identify customer behavior with regard to out-of-stocks (OOS) of perishable products (focused on bakery bread) and the resulting inventory performance for these perishable products. Design/methodology/approach – Insights on how consumers behave when their preferred bread product is OOS are derived based on 3,800 customer interviews performed in three stores of a large Dutch grocery retail chain. Next to this, additional logistical information was measured on regular moments with respect to the shelf availability per stock-keeping unit during the day and to waste at the end of the day. Findings – The customer behavior with regard to perishables is observed to be different from that for the non-perishable items. The key observation is that customers have a high willingness to substitute. The incorporation of the obtained knowledge of the observed consumer buying behavior into the existing automated store ordering (ASO) systems is discussed. In the current ASO systems, no distinction is made between perishable and non-perishable products, as it is primarily designed and used for the non-perishables. The authors show that the current ASO can be enriched and extended by taking into account some extra crucial parameters which are based on the observed consumer behavior. Originality/value – One common factor in the research papers published so far is that they primarily looked into the customer behavior for non-perishable items. The current paper on-hand extends these works towards perishable items with a focus on bakery bread.

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