The KLU faculty, post-docs, and PhD candidates regularly publish the results of their research in scientific journals. You will find a complete overview of all KLU publications below (e.g. articles in peer-reviewed journals, professional journals, books, working papers, and conference proceedings). Search for relevant terms and keywords, or filter the list by name, year of publication or type of publication. The references include DOIs and abstracts where available, and you can download them to your own reference database or platform. We regularly update the database with new publications.

Selected Publications

Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.ejor.2015.07.001

Abstract: This paper considers a single machine scheduling problem in which each job to be scheduled belongs to a family and setups are required between jobs belonging to different families. Each job requires a certain amount of resource that is supplied through upstream processes. Therefore, schedules must be generated in such a way that the total resource demand does not exceed the resource supply up to any point in time. The goal is to find a schedule minimising total tardiness with respect to the given due dates of the jobs. A mathematical formulation and a heuristic solution approach for two variants of the problem are presented. Computational experiments show that the proposed heuristic outperforms a state-of-the-art commercial mixed integer programming solver both in terms of solution quality and computation time.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1177/0018726716639117

Abstract: Recent conceptual work suggests that the sense of identity that employees develop vis-vis their organization goes beyond the traditional notion of organizational identification and can also involve conflicting impulses represented by ambivalent identification. In this study, we seek to advance this perspective on identification by proposing and empirically examining important antecedents and consequences. In line with our hypotheses, an experimental study (N = 199 employees) shows that organizational identification and ambivalent identification interactively influence employees’ willingness to engage in organizational citizenship behavior. The effect of organizational identification on organizational citizenship behavior is significantly reduced when employees experience ambivalent identification. A field study involving employees from a broad spectrum of organizations and industries (N = 564) replicated these findings. Moreover, results show that employees’ promotion and prevention focus form differential relationships with organizational identification and ambivalent identification, providing first evidence for a link between employees’ regulatory focus and the dynamics of identification. Implications for the expanded model of organizational identification and the understanding of ambivalence in organizations are discussed.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01446

Abstract: A six-month, time-lagged online survey among 441 employees in diverse industries was conducted to investigate the role paranoia plays as an antecedent and as a consequence of advancement in organizations. The background of the study is the argument that it requires active social sense-making and behavioral adaptability to advance in organizations. The present paper thus explores the extent to which employees’ paranoid cognitions—representative of a heightened albeit suspicious sense-making and behavioral adaptability—link with their advancement in organizations (operationalized as changes in afforded span of control), both as an antecedent and an outcome. Following the strategy to illuminate the process by interaction analysis, both conditions (antecedent and outcome) are examined in interaction with employees’ self-monitoring, which is considered representative of a heightened but healthy sense-making and behavioral adaptability. Results support the expected interference interaction between paranoid cognitions and self-monitoring in that each can to some degree compensate for the other in explaining employees’ organizational advancement. Reversely, changes in span of control also affected paranoid cognitions. In particular, low self-monitors, i.e. those low in adaptive sense-making, reacted with heightened paranoid cognitions when demoted. In effect, the present study is thus the first to empirically support that paranoid cognitions can be a consequence but also a prerequisite for getting ahead in organizations. Practical advice should, however, be suspended until it is better understood whether and under what circumstances paranoia may relate not only to personally getting ahead but also to an increased effectiveness for the benefit of the organization.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.06.060

Abstract: Online retailing can lower the environmental impact of shopping under specific circumstances. As a result of the numerous variables involved, most of the studies that have compared the carbon footprints of online and conventional retailing only take a partial view. To make a more holistic assessment, this study develops a framework that accounts for all the relevant environmental factors relating to retail/e-commerce activities. Variables related to consumer shopping behaviour such as basket size, transport mode, trip length and trip frequency are included in the analysis. This framework is used to build a Life Cycle Analysis model. The model is applied to different online retail methods for fast-moving consumer goods in the United Kingdom. We find that, within the “last mile” link to the home, the nature of the consumer's behaviour in terms of travel, choice of e-fulfilment method and basket size are critical factors in determining the environmental sustainability of e-commerce. The nature and routing of van deliveries, the amount and type of packaging used, and the energy efficiency of shop and e-fulfilment centre operations are also identified as significant contributors to climate change potential. The results of this study indicate ways in which e-commerce can be made more environmentally sustainable, encouraging consumers to reduce complementary shopping trips and maximise the number of items per delivery. This study identifies the strengths and weaknesses of a range of e-retail channels and provides a basis for future research on the environmental sustainability of online retailing of fast-moving consumer goods.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:10.1080/00207543.2015.1053579

Abstract: We consider production systems in technology industries where output quality of a single production run has a large variance. Firms operating such systems classify products into different quality bins and sell units in one bin at the same tagged quality level and the same price. Consumers have heterogeneous quality preferences and choose that quality that maximises their net utility. We examine firms’ assortment, production and pricing problem. We present a three-stage solution procedure that optimises the production quantity, quality specification and number of bins. In that regard, we show that for a manufacturing technology with known quality distribution and known distribution of customers’ quality preference, the optimal assortment and production quantity are set such that on average, the demand of each bin is exactly fulfilled. We examine the impact of an improved manufacturing technology, variation in consumer preferences and changing price premium on the optimal assortment, lot size, market share, yield loss and the overall profitability. We further show that when the quality distribution of the manufacturing process is unknown, downward substitution leads to product offering of higher quality and higher prices. Finally, we discuss practical considerations for pricing, technology and optimal product offerings, and explain the proliferation of bins witnessed in the last decade in the processor industry.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.05.005

Abstract: Recent acquisitions involving Tumblr and Instagram have demonstrated that the takeover of an unlisted start-up company can offer enormous financial benefits to its (former) stakeholders. Considering the multimillion-dollar amounts paid for start-ups with no existing and highly uncertain future revenues, we investigate the process and outcome of negotiation dynamics in the context of takeovers. In a series of experiments, we show that even with a low level of uncertainty about a start-up's value and its financial resources, start-ups can influence bidders' behavior and consequently the start-ups' valuation. The results indicate that incumbents' bidding behavior is driven by the perceived threat level with respect to the start-up's business activities as well as by the uncertainty with respect to other incumbents' bidding behavior—drivers that are subject to activities by the start-ups' management. Interestingly, the effect even exists if incumbents clearly know that initiating a bidding process will very likely lead to losses.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2015.05.007

Abstract: We study investor happiness in a panel survey of brokerage clients at a 5UK6 bank. When investors anticipate future happiness, they set their return aspirations according to personal portfolio risk, objectives, investment horizon, confidence, and other individual characteristics. They are accurate in their forecasts, only rarely are investors unhappy with outcomes they predicted they would be happy with, and vice versa. However, determinants of experienced happiness only partially correspond to the ones found for anticipated happiness. In particular, relative performance plays an important role investors do not anticipate. Having outperformed other people contributes to investor happiness, as does active trading success.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1108/S0742-332220150000032007

Abstract: Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) plays an important role in explaining firm performance. In this study, we investigate the relation between EO and performance at the strategic business unit (SBU) level and examine the influence of decision-making mode and social capital of the focal business unit manager. Adopting the attention-based view (ABV) as our main theoretical perspective, we examine the impact of decision-making mode (i.e., participative vs. autocratic) on the EO–performance relation. In addition, we investigate the extent to which strong network ties with actors at lower, similar, and higher hierarchical positions, respectively, enable SBU managers to effectively engage in participative decision-making processes when leveraging EO. Our findings based on 119 SBUs of one large international company provide nuanced insights into how local conditions interact to shape EO’s influence on performance.

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Abstract: How well universities prosper depends on their reputations, which in turn depend on high-level published research. I investigate German data from Handelsblatt and Centrum für Hochschulentwicklung (CHE) for university business faculties and show that publication productivity is characterized by increasing returns to scale, which stem from the number of professors a university employs, and that a higher ratio of students per professor does not usually hurt productivity. Third-party funds show only a small and weakly significant impact. My analysis of the total costs of universities indicates that publications, student education, and contract research all exhibit significant economies of scale.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1080/13675567.2015.1027150

Abstract: The paper reviews existing literature on corporate responsibility (CR) in the port sector and proposes a conceptual framework that brings together the CR drivers in port environmental strategies. The conceptual framework is derived from the existing literature and is based on institutional theory. The literature review is supported by a discussion on CR strategies in 10 major ports around the world. The paper argues that ports tend to replicate environmental strategies across regions and learn from each other, and that a competitive focus on logistics tends to strengthen the importance of CR and in particular of environmental performance in ports. For some ports CR has become an integral part of their value creation proposition mostly as a result of competitive pressure. Furthermore, the paper advances also a correspondence between the degree of port agility and the CR profile of the port. Managerial and policy implications are also discussed.

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Abstract: In the last decade researchers have been looking at ways of reducing the carbonintensity of shipping operations that globally account for approximately 3 % of world carbonemissions. As a result of regulation and firms’ efforts to innovate, the maritime sectorhas introduced new technologies and practices such as slow steaming which have contributedto reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere. The impact of technologicaland operational developments on global GHG emissions is difficult to assess, however,without empirical evidence. So far such evidence has been only partially available and mostof the data sources used in the literature have been compiled for different purposes or arebased on single firm case studies.This paper reports the results of an analysis of a fuel consumption database compiled bythe BSR Clean Cargo Working Group (CCWG) with the specific purpose of benchmarking andcollecting emission data and comprising 2,300 container ship voyages (reporting year 2013,data for 2012). This analysis has examined the effect of technical and operational parameterson these vessels’ fuel consumption and emissions and is the first to be performed on the datasetand in general on self-reported data across multiple companies. In 2012, carriers in theCCWG accounted for approximately 65% of total world deep-sea container traffic.The paper outlines an econometric model that regresses carbon emissions from containershipping on particular trade routes against a range of independent variables, suchas vessel age, size and average speed. The paper results indicate that significant differencesexist among carriers both in terms of energy efficiency and carbon intensity. The analysisalso suggests that while the emission profiles of some trade routes have remained relativelystable in recent years, others have witnessed an increase in emissions mainly as a result of aconcentration of container flows. By improving our understanding of the determinants ofcarbon emissions from container shipping, this research should help shipping lines developcarbon-reduction plans and governments to devise appropriate policies to incentivise thedecarbonisation of the maritime sector.

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Abstract: For the past decade, customer relationship management (CRM) has been one of the priorities in marketing research and practice. Hence, many companies have invested heavily in CRM systems that, unfortunately, did not meet their expectations. Because such shortcomings may have resulted from unrealistic expectations as well as inappropriate data input, this study provides insights into what companies may expect from CRM and what data they should use. Across the phases of the CRM process, the authors show which CRM objectives have been considered and which customer data have proven to be applicable in the empirical CRM literature. The results indicate that despite differences with respect to influence, a variety of customer data can be used to analyze CRM objectives throughout the entire customer life cycle. Overall, the study provides researchers with a comprehensive review of the empirical research on CRM and offers practitioners insights on the scope of CRM analyses and the applicability of customer data for CRM.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2015.03.027

Abstract: Abstract Consider a single-leg dynamic revenue management problem with fare classes controlled by capacity in a risk-averse setting. The revenue management strategy aims at limiting the down-side risk, and in particular, value-at-risk. A value-at-risk optimised policy offers an advantage when considering applications which do not allow for a large number of reiterations. They allow for specifying a confidence level regarding undesired scenarios. We introduce a computational method for determining policies which optimises the value-at-risk for a given confidence level. This is achieved by computing dynamic programming solutions for a set of target revenue values and combining the solutions in order to attain the requested multi-stage risk-averse policy. We reduce the state space used in the dynamic programming in order to provide a solution which is feasible and has less computational requirements. Numerical examples and comparison with other risk-sensitive approaches are discussed.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cor.2014.12.004

Abstract: Abstract Consider a dynamic decision making model under risk with a fixed planning horizon, namely the dynamic capacity control model. The model describes a firm, operating in a monopolistic setting and selling a range of products consuming a single resource. Demand for each product is time-dependent and modeled by a random variable. The firm controls the revenue stream by allowing or denying customer requests for product classes. We investigate risk-sensitive policies in this setting, for which risk concerns are important for many non-repetitive events and short-time considerations. Numerically analysing several risk-averse capacity control policies in terms of standard deviation and conditional-value-at-risk, our results show that only a slight modification of the risk-neutral solution is needed to apply a risk-averse policy. In particular, risk-averse policies which decision rules are functions depending only on the marginal values of the risk-neutral policy perform well. From a practical perspective, the advantage is that a decision maker does not need to compute any risk-averse dynamic program. Risk sensitivity can be easily achieved by implementing risk-averse functional decision rules based on a risk-neutral solution.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.5539/jedp.v5n1p74

Abstract: This study examines the relationship between students’ (N = 334) perceived teacher respect and their performance on a math exam in school settings. The incremental validity of respect on performance beyond that accounted for by intelligence is assessed. Results suggest that respect accounts for significant additional variability in students’ performance above that accounted for by intelligence. Further analyses reveal that the relationship between respect and performance is moderated by immigration. For German students (N = 150), perceived respect accounts for a part of the variability in performance over the variability accounted for by intelligence. For students with an immigrant background (N = 181) this relationship is not significant. Cultural implications of respect in school settings are discussed.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:10.5381/jot.2015.14.1.a2.   DOI: doi:10.5381/jot.2015.14.1.a2.

Abstract: In the past, logistics used to be a core function of production and trading companies but many of them started to outsource at least parts of their logistics functions to specialized logistics service providers in terms of logistics contracts. With this, sophisticated business models such as value added logistics service providers evolved which focus on tasks of planning, coordination and monitoring of entire supply chains involving multiple logistics providers. Challenges remain though, for instance how a complex logistics contract can be planned and how it can be assured that the providers comply with the planned process. In this article, we present a conceptual as well as technical solution to the monitoring of logistics services and show how to reuse this information in a model for the integrated planning of logistics contracts. A simulation model thereby ensures validity of the overall planning. An approach for integrating different models helps to overcome the problem of utilizing multiple models. Finally, an example scenario shows how each part contributes to a successful planning process for logistics contracts.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1080/0740817X.2014.999897

Abstract: The effect of inventory policies on order variability has been analyzed extensively. Two popular means of reducing order variability are demand smoothing and order smoothing. If the objective is minimizing demand variability, demands and orders can be heavily smoothed, resulting in an inventory policy that orders equal amounts in each time period. Such a policy obviously minimizes order variability, but it leads to high cost and low responsiveness of the inventory system. To optimize the overall performance of an inventory system, the effect of the inventory policy on all relevant dimensions of operational performance must be analyzed. We address this issue and analyze the effect of the parameter values of an inventory policy on three main dimensions of operational performance: Order variability, expected cost, and responsiveness. The inventory policy we use is the partial correction policy, a policy that can be used to smooth demand and to smooth orders. To analyze this policy, we use linear control theory. We derive the transfer function of the policy and prove the stability of the inventory system under this policy. Then, we determine the effect of the policy parameters on order variability, cost, and responsiveness and discuss how good parameter values can be chosen.

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Copy reference link   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2015.09.004

Abstract: Referral programs have become a popular tool to use the customer base for new customer acquisition. We replicate the work of Schmitt et al. (2011) who find that referred customers are more loyal and valuable than customers acquired through other channels. While our results confirm that rewarded referrals indeed reduce the risk of customer churn, we do not find that referred customers are necessarily more valuable. Analysis of the relationship between senders and receivers of referrals demonstrates that demographic similarity drives the referred customer value.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s11002-014-9293-2

Abstract: Customer retention is a major driver of customer lifetime value and is thus a key performance metric in marketing management. Consequently, companies try to retain customers by offering contracts with minimum contract durations (MCD). Using behavioral, psychometric, and advertising data for a large sample of DSL customers, the authors study the impact of minimum contract durations on actual customer churn behavior. The analyses demonstrate that subscriptions with minimum contract durations do indeed help companies to successfully retain customers. The effect is impaired though, as companies typically (must) provide incentives to convince customers to commit to those contracts. We find that incentives attract customers that either cannot or should not be retained and hence require companies to carefully apply both MCD and incentives.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.02.011

Abstract: Background and objectives Overconfidence in errors is a well-replicated cognitive bias in psychosis. However, prior studies have sometimes failed to find differences between patients and controls for more difficult tasks. We pursued the hypothesis that overconfidence in errors is exaggerated in participants with a liability to psychosis relative to controls only when they feel competent in the respective topic and/or deem the question easy. Whereas subjective competence likely enhances confidence in those with low psychosis liability as well, we still expected to find more ‘residual’ caution in the latter group. Methods We adopted a psychometric high-risk approach to circumvent the confounding influence of treatment. A total of 2321 individuals from the general population were administered a task modeled after the “Who wants to be a millionaire” quiz. Participants were requested to endorse one out of four response options, graded for confidence, and were asked to provide ratings regarding subjective competence for the knowledge domain as well as the subjective difficulty of each item. Results In line with our assumption, overconfidence in errors was increased overall in participants scoring high on the Paranoia Checklist core paranoia subscale (2 5SD6 above the mean). This pattern of results was particularly prominent for items for which participants considered themselves competent and which they rated as easy. Limitations Results need to be replicated in a clinical sample. Discussion In support of our hypothesis, subjective competence and task difficulty moderate overconfidence in errors in psychosis. Trainings that teach patients the fallibility of human cognition may help reduce delusional ideation.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2014.10.005

Abstract: Abstract Drawing on the knowledge-based view of the firm, we develop and test a theoretical model linking high-performance work systems (HPWS) and workforce productivity via employee exchange and combination of knowledge. A test of our model in a sample of junior enterprises in Germany supports the proposal that knowledge exchange and combination plays a mediating role. However, knowledge-management effectiveness interacts. That is, knowledge exchange and combination mediates the relationship between 5HPWS6 and workforce productivity only when knowledge-management is effective at medium and high levels, but not at low levels.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.frl.2015.01.007

Abstract: In this paper, we propose novel predictor variables for forecasting stock market returns. We investigate the predictive power of the demand for gold coins and bars as a proxy for the risk premium consistent with the safe haven property of gold. The gold demand variables reflect the behaviour of retail investors and thus also represent a new class of predictors. Our analysis shows that the demand for gold is positively correlated with future stock returns and enhances the predictive power of the dividend yield and other variables.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1080/08853134.2015.1085807

Abstract: In the last half-century, significant advances have been made in directing sales force behavior with the use of optimization and decision models. The present paper both presents the current state-of-the art in sales force decision modeling, and also discusses key issues and trends in contemporary modeling of relevance to sales force researchers. The paper begins by exploring critical concepts regarding the estimation of the sales response function, and then discusses critical problems of endogeneity, heterogeneity, and temporal variation that are faced by modelers in this task. Modern approaches to dealing with these issues are presented. We then discuss areas of importance concerning finding model solutions, including closed form versus simulation, and optimization versus heuristic solutions. The paper next moves to areas of practical importance where models can help, including call planning, sales force size, territory allocation, and compensation design. Finally, we discuss trends that will likely impact on sales force modeling in coming years, including the use of big data and data mining, the possible breakdown of rationality, the rise of the Internet and social media, and the potential of agent-based modeling.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1515/rmeef-2014-0037

Abstract: This study contributes to the banking efficiency literature by using a three input–five output stochastic frontier translog cost function specification to investigate cost efficiency, scale economies, and technological progress in the Egyptian banking sector. The study analyzes the efficiency of Egyptian banks in the period 2000–2006 which witnessed major regulatory and structural changes. The analysis is based on a panel data of 34 commercial banks representing about 75% of the banking sector in Egypt. The results show that the banks suffer significantly from internal X-inefficiency with an average cost reduction potential of 12%. Increasing economies of scale are found to exist up to a bank size of about EGP30 bn, implying that all but the four largest banks in Egypt could reduce their average costs by growth. Surprisingly, Egyptian commercial banks did not benefit from technological change; instead they faced a negative dynamics of the cost frontier. Further regression analysis conducted to explain the different efficiency levels of the banks revealed a positive impact of size, growth, and merger activities on efficiency, which implies bigger is better for Egyptian Banks.

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