The KLU faculty, post-docs, and PhD candidates regularly publish the results of their research in scientific journals. You will find a complete overview of all KLU publications below (e.g. articles in peer-reviewed journals, professional journals, books, working papers, and conference proceedings). Search for relevant terms and keywords, or filter the list by name, year of publication or type of publication. The references include DOIs and abstracts where available, and you can download them to your own reference database or platform. We regularly update the database with new publications.

Journal Articles (Peer-Reviewed)

Copy reference link   DOI: doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01126

Abstract: Previous research indicated that leader moral identity (MI; i.e., leaders’ self-definition in terms of moral attributes) predicts to what extent followers perceive their leader as ethical (i.e., demonstrating and promoting ethical conduct in the organization). Leadership, however, is a relational process that involves leaders and followers. Building on this understanding, we hypothesized that follower and leader MI (a) interact in predicting whether followers will perceive their leaders as ethical and, as a result, (b) influence followers’ perceptions of leader–follower relationship quality. A dyadic field study (N = 101) shows that leader MI is a stronger predictor of followers’ perceptions of ethical leadership for followers who are high (vs. low) in MI. Perceptions of ethical leadership in turn predict how the quality of the relationship will be perceived. Hence, whether leader MI translates to perceptions of ethical leadership and of better relationship quality depends on the MI of followers.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.frl.2015.01.007

Abstract: In this paper, we propose novel predictor variables for forecasting stock market returns. We investigate the predictive power of the demand for gold coins and bars as a proxy for the risk premium consistent with the safe haven property of gold. The gold demand variables reflect the behaviour of retail investors and thus also represent a new class of predictors. Our analysis shows that the demand for gold is positively correlated with future stock returns and enhances the predictive power of the dividend yield and other variables.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1080/08853134.2015.1085807

Abstract: In the last half-century, significant advances have been made in directing sales force behavior with the use of optimization and decision models. The present paper both presents the current state-of-the art in sales force decision modeling, and also discusses key issues and trends in contemporary modeling of relevance to sales force researchers. The paper begins by exploring critical concepts regarding the estimation of the sales response function, and then discusses critical problems of endogeneity, heterogeneity, and temporal variation that are faced by modelers in this task. Modern approaches to dealing with these issues are presented. We then discuss areas of importance concerning finding model solutions, including closed form versus simulation, and optimization versus heuristic solutions. The paper next moves to areas of practical importance where models can help, including call planning, sales force size, territory allocation, and compensation design. Finally, we discuss trends that will likely impact on sales force modeling in coming years, including the use of big data and data mining, the possible breakdown of rationality, the rise of the Internet and social media, and the potential of agent-based modeling.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1515/rmeef-2014-0037

Abstract: This study contributes to the banking efficiency literature by using a three input–five output stochastic frontier translog cost function specification to investigate cost efficiency, scale economies, and technological progress in the Egyptian banking sector. The study analyzes the efficiency of Egyptian banks in the period 2000–2006 which witnessed major regulatory and structural changes. The analysis is based on a panel data of 34 commercial banks representing about 75% of the banking sector in Egypt. The results show that the banks suffer significantly from internal X-inefficiency with an average cost reduction potential of 12%. Increasing economies of scale are found to exist up to a bank size of about EGP30 bn, implying that all but the four largest banks in Egypt could reduce their average costs by growth. Surprisingly, Egyptian commercial banks did not benefit from technological change; instead they faced a negative dynamics of the cost frontier. Further regression analysis conducted to explain the different efficiency levels of the banks revealed a positive impact of size, growth, and merger activities on efficiency, which implies bigger is better for Egyptian Banks.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2015.05.007

Abstract: We study investor happiness in a panel survey of brokerage clients at a 5UK6 bank. When investors anticipate future happiness, they set their return aspirations according to personal portfolio risk, objectives, investment horizon, confidence, and other individual characteristics. They are accurate in their forecasts, only rarely are investors unhappy with outcomes they predicted they would be happy with, and vice versa. However, determinants of experienced happiness only partially correspond to the ones found for anticipated happiness. In particular, relative performance plays an important role investors do not anticipate. Having outperformed other people contributes to investor happiness, as does active trading success.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s11573-014-0753-1

Abstract: We extend theories on charismatic leadership by investigating the influence of prior company performance on subordinates’ attributions of chief executive officer (CEO) charisma within companies of different sizes and ownership structure. First, we use an experimental design to examine the effects of prior company performance on attributions of CEO charisma. Second, in a field study with 69 companies we replicate the experimental finding and show that this relationship is moderated by the size of the company such that the relationship between prior company performance and attributions of CEO charisma is significant only in large companies. We find no evidence, however, that the ownership structure of a company could strengthen or weaken this relationship.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s11002-014-9293-2

Abstract: Customer retention is a major driver of customer lifetime value and is thus a key performance metric in marketing management. Consequently, companies try to retain customers by offering contracts with minimum contract durations (MCD). Using behavioral, psychometric, and advertising data for a large sample of DSL customers, the authors study the impact of minimum contract durations on actual customer churn behavior. The analyses demonstrate that subscriptions with minimum contract durations do indeed help companies to successfully retain customers. The effect is impaired though, as companies typically (must) provide incentives to convince customers to commit to those contracts. We find that incentives attract customers that either cannot or should not be retained and hence require companies to carefully apply both MCD and incentives.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1108/MRR-09-2013-0209

Abstract: This paper aims to show how researchers can overcome problems of fragmentation and eclecticism in an important strategy paradigm, namely, the Dynamic Capabilities (DC) perspective. First, the explanandum of the theory of DC, conceptualized as a theory of strategic change, is generates. Second, four main constituent theoretical perspectives of DC were selected and their explanans on the explanandum of a theory of strategic change was mapped. Third, the explanans of a theory of strategic change was parsed out to derive the critical fragmentation sources as illustrated by the classical papers in DC. First, consistent explanans of a theory of strategic change are integrated to build a meta-theory of strategic change. Second, testable propositions based on the meta-theory, in the context of industry convergence, a context which requires the development of dynamic capabilities in an uncertain and changing environmental context are developed. By developing a meta-theory of strategic change, researchers are provided with the tools to overcome the confusion of fragmentation and eclecticism, specifically in the field of strategy research.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cor.2014.12.004

Abstract: Abstract Consider a dynamic decision making model under risk with a fixed planning horizon, namely the dynamic capacity control model. The model describes a firm, operating in a monopolistic setting and selling a range of products consuming a single resource. Demand for each product is time-dependent and modeled by a random variable. The firm controls the revenue stream by allowing or denying customer requests for product classes. We investigate risk-sensitive policies in this setting, for which risk concerns are important for many non-repetitive events and short-time considerations. Numerically analysing several risk-averse capacity control policies in terms of standard deviation and conditional-value-at-risk, our results show that only a slight modification of the risk-neutral solution is needed to apply a risk-averse policy. In particular, risk-averse policies which decision rules are functions depending only on the marginal values of the risk-neutral policy perform well. From a practical perspective, the advantage is that a decision maker does not need to compute any risk-averse dynamic program. Risk sensitivity can be easily achieved by implementing risk-averse functional decision rules based on a risk-neutral solution.

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Abstract: In the last decade researchers have been looking at ways of reducing the carbonintensity of shipping operations that globally account for approximately 3 % of world carbonemissions. As a result of regulation and firms’ efforts to innovate, the maritime sectorhas introduced new technologies and practices such as slow steaming which have contributedto reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere. The impact of technologicaland operational developments on global GHG emissions is difficult to assess, however,without empirical evidence. So far such evidence has been only partially available and mostof the data sources used in the literature have been compiled for different purposes or arebased on single firm case studies.This paper reports the results of an analysis of a fuel consumption database compiled bythe BSR Clean Cargo Working Group (CCWG) with the specific purpose of benchmarking andcollecting emission data and comprising 2,300 container ship voyages (reporting year 2013,data for 2012). This analysis has examined the effect of technical and operational parameterson these vessels’ fuel consumption and emissions and is the first to be performed on the datasetand in general on self-reported data across multiple companies. In 2012, carriers in theCCWG accounted for approximately 65% of total world deep-sea container traffic.The paper outlines an econometric model that regresses carbon emissions from containershipping on particular trade routes against a range of independent variables, suchas vessel age, size and average speed. The paper results indicate that significant differencesexist among carriers both in terms of energy efficiency and carbon intensity. The analysisalso suggests that while the emission profiles of some trade routes have remained relativelystable in recent years, others have witnessed an increase in emissions mainly as a result of aconcentration of container flows. By improving our understanding of the determinants ofcarbon emissions from container shipping, this research should help shipping lines developcarbon-reduction plans and governments to devise appropriate policies to incentivise thedecarbonisation of the maritime sector.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:10.5381/jot.2015.14.1.a2.   DOI: doi:10.5381/jot.2015.14.1.a2.

Abstract: In the past, logistics used to be a core function of production and trading companies but many of them started to outsource at least parts of their logistics functions to specialized logistics service providers in terms of logistics contracts. With this, sophisticated business models such as value added logistics service providers evolved which focus on tasks of planning, coordination and monitoring of entire supply chains involving multiple logistics providers. Challenges remain though, for instance how a complex logistics contract can be planned and how it can be assured that the providers comply with the planned process. In this article, we present a conceptual as well as technical solution to the monitoring of logistics services and show how to reuse this information in a model for the integrated planning of logistics contracts. A simulation model thereby ensures validity of the overall planning. An approach for integrating different models helps to overcome the problem of utilizing multiple models. Finally, an example scenario shows how each part contributes to a successful planning process for logistics contracts.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2015.06.015

Abstract: Abstract Empirical studies have shown that millions of individual users develop new products and services to serve their own needs. The economic impact of this phenomenon increases if and as adopters in addition to the initial innovators also gain benefits from those user-developed innovations. It has been argued that the diffusion of user-developed innovations is negatively affected by a new type of market failure: value that others may gain from a user-developed product can often be an externality to consumer-developers. As a result, consumer innovators may not invest in supporting diffusion to the extent that would be socially optimal. In this paper, we utilize a broad sample of consumers in Finland to explore the extent to which innovations developed by individual users are deemed of potential value to others, and the extent to which they diffuse as a function of perceived general value. Our empirical analysis supports the hypothesis that a market failure is affecting the diffusion of user innovations developed by consumers for their own use. Implications and possible remedies are discussed.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.5539/jedp.v5n1p74

Abstract: This study examines the relationship between students’ (N = 334) perceived teacher respect and their performance on a math exam in school settings. The incremental validity of respect on performance beyond that accounted for by intelligence is assessed. Results suggest that respect accounts for significant additional variability in students’ performance above that accounted for by intelligence. Further analyses reveal that the relationship between respect and performance is moderated by immigration. For German students (N = 150), perceived respect accounts for a part of the variability in performance over the variability accounted for by intelligence. For students with an immigrant background (N = 181) this relationship is not significant. Cultural implications of respect in school settings are discussed.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:10.1111/poms.12358

Abstract: The majority of after-sales service providers manage their service parts inventory by focusing on the availability of service parts. This approach, combined with automatic replenishment systems, leads to reactive inventory control policies where base stock levels are adjusted only after a service contract expires. Consequently, service providers often face excess stock of critical service parts that are difficult to dispose due to their specificity. In this study, we address this problem by developing inventory control policies taking into account contract expirations. Our key idea is to reduce the base stock level of the one-for-one policy before obsolescence (a full or partial drop in demand rate) occurs and let demand take away excess stock. We refer to this policy as the single-adjustment policy. We benchmark the single-adjustment policy with the multiple-adjustment policy (allowing multiple base stock adjustments) formulated as a dynamic program and verify that for a wide range of instances the single-adjustment policy is an effective heuristic for the multiple-adjustment policy. We also compare the single-adjustment policy with the world-dependent base stock policy offered by Song and Zipkin (1993) and identify the parameter combinations where both policies yield similar costs. We consider two special cases of the single-adjustment policy where the base stock level is kept fixed or the base stock adjustment is postponed to the contract expiration time. We find that the initial demand rate, contract expiration time, and size of the drop in demand rate are the three key parameters driving the choice between the single-adjustment policy and its special cases.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2015.03.027

Abstract: Abstract Consider a single-leg dynamic revenue management problem with fare classes controlled by capacity in a risk-averse setting. The revenue management strategy aims at limiting the down-side risk, and in particular, value-at-risk. A value-at-risk optimised policy offers an advantage when considering applications which do not allow for a large number of reiterations. They allow for specifying a confidence level regarding undesired scenarios. We introduce a computational method for determining policies which optimises the value-at-risk for a given confidence level. This is achieved by computing dynamic programming solutions for a set of target revenue values and combining the solutions in order to attain the requested multi-stage risk-averse policy. We reduce the state space used in the dynamic programming in order to provide a solution which is feasible and has less computational requirements. Numerical examples and comparison with other risk-sensitive approaches are discussed.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1177/0149206313478187

Abstract: Existing justice theory explains why fair procedures motivate employees to adopt cooperative goals, but it fails to explain how employees strive toward these goals. We study self-regulatory abilities that underlie goal striving, abilities that should thus affect employees’ display of cooperative behavior in response to procedural justice. Building on action control theory, we argue that employees who display effective self-regulatory strategies (action-oriented employees) display relatively strong cooperative behavioral responses to fair procedures. A multisource field study and a laboratory experiment support this prediction. A subsequent experiment addresses the process underlying this effect by explicitly showing that action orientation facilitates attainment of the cooperative goals that people adopt in response to fair procedures, thus facilitating the display of actual cooperative behavior. This goal striving approach better integrates research on the relationship between procedural justice and employee cooperation in the self-regulation and the work motivation literature. It also offers organizations a new perspective on making procedural justice effective in stimulating employee cooperation by suggesting factors that help employees reach their adopted goals.

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Abstract: For the past decade, customer relationship management (CRM) has been one of the priorities in marketing research and practice. Hence, many companies have invested heavily in CRM systems that, unfortunately, did not meet their expectations. Because such shortcomings may have resulted from unrealistic expectations as well as inappropriate data input, this study provides insights into what companies may expect from CRM and what data they should use. Across the phases of the CRM process, the authors show which CRM objectives have been considered and which customer data have proven to be applicable in the empirical CRM literature. The results indicate that despite differences with respect to influence, a variety of customer data can be used to analyze CRM objectives throughout the entire customer life cycle. Overall, the study provides researchers with a comprehensive review of the empirical research on CRM and offers practitioners insights on the scope of CRM analyses and the applicability of customer data for CRM.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1057/mel.2015.5

Abstract: It is widely felt that in order to strengthen the competitiveness of European ports it is needed to ensure fair competition among ports and the sector is anew facing new and old challenges related to its long-term development.These challenges, and arguably the inability of the port sector and the European Union (EU) Member States to meaningfully react to them on their own, are at the basis of the renewed attempt of the European Commission (EC) to develop a uniform and coherent policy package for ports. The article provides a critical account of recent EU policy initiatives, focusing on the most recent attempt of the EC to address some of the issues facing the port sector. The article discusses some of the controversies arising from the new EC policy approach, which, although milder in its contents than the previous attempts, recalls the content of the previous policy proposals, especially in the areas of liberalization of port services; pricing; competition; administrative simplification; financial and operational autonomy; and state aid provisions. The article concludes that the EU not only does not go far enough but, by trying to introduce compromises and conditions of considerable vagueness and ambiguity renders its policy proposals practically useless, thus allowing Member States the freedom to continue unabated as before.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.08.005

Abstract: The literature on ethical leadership has focused primarily on the way ethical leaders influence follower moral judgment and behavior. It has overlooked that follower responses to ethical leaders may differ depending on the attention they pay to the moral aspects of leadership. In the present research, we introduce moral attentiveness as an important moderator for the relationship between ethical leadership and unethical employee behavior. In a multisource field study (N = 90), we confirm our hypothesis that morally attentive followers respond with more deviance to unethical leaders. An experimental study (N = 96) replicates the finding. Our paper extends the current leader-focused literature by examining how follower moral attentiveness determines the response of followers to ethical or unethical leadership.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.02.011

Abstract: Background and objectives Overconfidence in errors is a well-replicated cognitive bias in psychosis. However, prior studies have sometimes failed to find differences between patients and controls for more difficult tasks. We pursued the hypothesis that overconfidence in errors is exaggerated in participants with a liability to psychosis relative to controls only when they feel competent in the respective topic and/or deem the question easy. Whereas subjective competence likely enhances confidence in those with low psychosis liability as well, we still expected to find more ‘residual’ caution in the latter group. Methods We adopted a psychometric high-risk approach to circumvent the confounding influence of treatment. A total of 2321 individuals from the general population were administered a task modeled after the “Who wants to be a millionaire” quiz. Participants were requested to endorse one out of four response options, graded for confidence, and were asked to provide ratings regarding subjective competence for the knowledge domain as well as the subjective difficulty of each item. Results In line with our assumption, overconfidence in errors was increased overall in participants scoring high on the Paranoia Checklist core paranoia subscale (2 5SD6 above the mean). This pattern of results was particularly prominent for items for which participants considered themselves competent and which they rated as easy. Limitations Results need to be replicated in a clinical sample. Discussion In support of our hypothesis, subjective competence and task difficulty moderate overconfidence in errors in psychosis. Trainings that teach patients the fallibility of human cognition may help reduce delusional ideation.

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Abstract: Encounters between the police and citizens with migration background are prone to conflict. In order to guarantee intercultural competent policing, police services are staffed with officers who have a family migration background. Drawing on conflict competence literature, we examined the resulting benefits and costs for police-ethnic minority conflict management by employing personnel with an ethnic minority family background. The sample of our interview study comprised 14 German police officers. The interviewees reported on the role of colleagues with a Turkish family background as either conflict resolvers or conflict intensifiers. Data suggest that police officers with an ethnic minority background significantly contribute to intercultural conflict resolution. Minority police officers’ conflict intensification can be framed as being a point of friction. We conclude that minority police officers are beneficial to police-ethnic minority conflict management and suggest continuous monitoring of minority police officers’ roles by police authorities. This is the first study on intercultural conflict management in policing, explaining the conflict resolving and intensifying contributions of minority police officers.

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Abstract: Book pricing is problematic for two main reasons. First, because legal restrictions make pricing decisions irreversible. Second, because publishers must set prices for many books every year. Therefore, a sound knowledge of consumer reaction to price is essential for good pricing decisions. Our research examines consumer reactions to prices, provides price elasticities based on a large sample of fiction books, and creates a comprehensive set of quality measures and control variables. Our results show that once price endogeneity is considered, consumers are price elastic. Moreover, we find that the price elasticity for hardcover books is substantially smaller than for paperbacks.

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Copy reference link   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2015.09.004

Abstract: Referral programs have become a popular tool to use the customer base for new customer acquisition. We replicate the work of Schmitt et al. (2011) who find that referred customers are more loyal and valuable than customers acquired through other channels. While our results confirm that rewarded referrals indeed reduce the risk of customer churn, we do not find that referred customers are necessarily more valuable. Analysis of the relationship between senders and receivers of referrals demonstrates that demographic similarity drives the referred customer value.

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