The KLU faculty, post-docs, and PhD candidates regularly publish the results of their research in scientific journals. You will find a complete overview of all KLU publications below (e.g. articles in peer-reviewed journals, professional journals, books, working papers, and conference proceedings). Search for relevant terms and keywords, or filter the list by name, year of publication or type of publication. The references include DOIs and abstracts where available, and you can download them to your own reference database or platform. We regularly update the database with new publications.
Boehm, Stephan A., Dwertmann, David J. G., Florian Kunze, Björn Michaelis, Kizzy M. Parks and Daniel P. McDonald (2014): Expanding Insights on the Diversity Climate–Performance Link: The Role of Workgroup Discrimination and Group Size, Human Resource Management, 53 (3): 379-402.
Abstract: The present study extends knowledge of the performance consequences of workgroup diversity climate. Building upon Kopelman, Brief, and Guzzo’s () climate model of productivity, we introduce workgroup discrimination as a behavioral mediator that explains the positive effects of diversity climate on workgroup performance. In addition, we investigate group size as a moderator upon which this mediated relationship depends. We test these moderated-mediated propositions using a split-sample design and data from 248 military workgroups comprising 8,707 respondents. Findings from structural equation modeling reveal that diversity climate is consistently positively related to workgroup performance and that this relationship is mediated by discrimination. Results yield a pattern of moderated mediation, in that the indirect relationship between workgroup diversity climate (through perceptions of workgroup discrimination) and group performance was more pronounced in larger than in smaller workgroups. These results illustrate that discrimination and group size represent key factors in determining how a diversity climate is associated with group performance and, thus, have significant implications for research and practice. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Friedrich, Hanno and Jonathan Gumpp (2014): Simplified Modeling and Solving of Logistics Optimization Problems, International Journal of Transportation, 2 (1): 33-52.
Abstract: Logistics optimization problems are often complex (NP - hard). Especially for large problem scopes in logistics and new agent-based freight transport models which have to solve these problems for many agents, simplifying modelling and solving procedures are necessary in order to reduce the level of complexity. Due to the variety of existing approaches and the specifics of each problem it is often difficult to find an appropriate method. This paper seeks to facilitate this process as it identifies ‘meta’ heuristics within literature, i.e. abstract courses of action that, when adapted, have proven successful in various problems. It presents a classification of general simplification principles that are useful for reducing the complexity of logistics problems, in order to facilitate understanding between academics and practice. The derivation of the related principles is based on the examination of five problems in logistics literature: facility location, distribution system, lot size, bin packing, and vehicle routing.
Baur, Dirk G. and Duy T. Tran (2014): The long-run relationship of gold and silver and the influence of bubbles and financial crises, Empirical Economics, 47 (4): 1525-1541.
Abstract: This paper analyzes the long-run relationship between gold and silver prices. We closely follow Escribano and Granger (J Forecast 17:81–107, 1998) and extend their study. We use a longer sample period from 1970 to 2011 and study the role of bubbles and financial crises for the relationship between gold and silver prices. We find clear evidence for a co-integration relationship between gold and silver with gold prices driving the relationship. The analysis also indicates that the results are influenced by bubble-like episodes and financial crises.
Baur, Dirk G. and Isaac Miyakawa (2014): No puzzle: The foreign exchange exposure of Australian firms, International Review of Financial Analysis, 32: 13-22.
Abstract: AbstractIn this paper we analyze the constant and time-varying influence of currency movements on the value of Australian firms listed on the S&P/ASX 100 index for a period from 1980 to 2010 using daily, weekly, monthly and quarterly returns. Whilst the constant exposure model provides only weak evidence over the full sample period the time-varying exposure analysis reveals that most firms are exposed to currency movements in some periods. The exchange rate exposure of Australian firms is dependent on the appreciation or depreciation trajectory of the Australian dollar and on the sample frequencies used. The positive average FX exposure is consistent with the structure of the Australian economy, the size of the mining sector and the role of the Australian dollar as a commodity currency. Finally, we argue that our findings are fully consistent with financial theory and do not constitute a puzzle.
Baur, Dirk G. and Kristoffer J. Glover (2014): Heterogeneous expectations in the gold market: Specification and estimation, Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 40: 116-133.
Abstract: AbstractThe increase in the price of gold between 2002 and 2011 appears to be a candidate for a potential asset price ‘bubble’, suggesting that chartists (feedback traders) were highly active in the gold market during this period. Hence, this paper develops and tests empirically several models incorporating heterogeneous expectations of agents, specifically fundamentalists and chartists, for the gold market. The empirical results show that both agent types are important in explaining historical gold prices but that the 10-year bull run of gold in the early 2000s is consistent with the presence of agents extrapolating long-term trends. Technically this paper is a further step toward providing an empirical foundation for certain assumptions used in the heterogeneous agents literature. For example, the empirical results presented in this paper compare the economical and statistical significance of numerous switching variable specifications that are generally only introduced ad hoc.
Sodhi, ManMohan S., Navdeep S. Sodhi and Christopher S. Tang (2014): An EOQ model for MRO customers under stochastic price to quantify bullwhip effect for the manufacturer, International Journal of Production Economics, 155: 132-142.
Abstract: AbstractMotivated by a particular multinational cutting-tools manufacturer, we extend the traditional economic order quantity (EOQ) model for maintenance-repair-and-overhaul (MRO) customers under stochastic purchase price and use it to show how price variance leads to bullwhip effect for the MRO manufacturer despite constant consumption by the customer. Our extension of the EOQ model is based on two assumptions that are reasonable for MRO customers: (a) customer consumption rate of the product is constant; and (b) the customer places each order when the inventory level drops to a pre-specified level (say, zero). We determine the customer's optimal ordering quantity in closed form expressions, which enables us to examine the impact of sales price variance on the variance in the orders the customer places on the manufacturer, thus creating a pricing-induced bullwhip effect. We then extend our analysis to multiple products and multiple customer segments and discuss ways for the manufacturer to mitigate the variance in the customer's orders.
Bansal, Saurabh and Sandra Transchel (2014): Managing Supply Risk for Vertically Differentiated Co-Products, Production and Operations Management, 23 (9): 1577-1598.
Abstract: The manufacturing complexity of many high-tech products results in a substantial variation in the quality of the units produced. After manufacturing, the units are classified into vertically differentiated products. These products are typically obtained in uncontrollable fractions, leading to mismatches between their demand and supply. We focus on product stockouts due to the supply–demand mismatches. Existing literature suggests that when faced with product stockouts, firms should satisfy all unmet demand of a low-end product by downgrading excess units of a high-end product (downward substitution). However, this policy may be suboptimal if it is likely that low-end customers will substitute with a higher quality product and pay the higher price (upward substitution). In this study, we investigate whether and how much downward substitution firms should perform. We also investigate whether and how much low-end inventory firms should withhold to strategically divert some low-end demand to the high-end product. We first establish the existence of regions of co-production technology and willingness of customers to substitute upward where firms adopt different substitution/withholding strategies. Then, we develop a managerial framework to determine the optimal selling strategy during the life cycle of technology products as profit margins shrink, manufacturing technology improves, and more capacity becomes available. Consistent trends exist for exogenous and endogenous prices.
Sodhi, ManMohan S. and Christopher S. Tang (2014): Supply-Chain Research Opportunities with the Poor as Suppliers or Distributors in Developing Countries, Production and Operations Management, 23 (9): 1483-1494.
Abstract: Many social enterprises and some companies have developed supply chains with the poor as suppliers or distributors to alleviate poverty and to create revenues for themselves. Such supply chains have created new research opportunities because they raise issues fundamentally different from those examined in the existing operations management literature. We report this phenomenon of supply chains with the poor as suppliers or distributors in developing countries and identify operations management (OM) research opportunities. We also provide some stylized models to serve as potential seeds for modeling-based research in this area.
Himme, Alexander and Marc Fischer (2014): Drivers of the Cost of Capital: The Joint Role of Non-Financial Metrics, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 31 (2): 224-238.
Abstract: Recent marketing studies suggest that non-financial metrics, such as customer satisfaction and brand value, help explain the variation in the cost of equity and the cost of debt. These studies typically focus on only one non-financial metric and one component of capital cost. In this study, we broaden the understanding of the relevance of non-financial metrics to the cost of capital. We investigate the joint role of customer satisfaction, brand value, and corporate reputation for stock market beta and credit ratings, which reflect variation in equity and debt risk premiums across firms. In addition to the joint direct influence of these metrics on capital cost, we also study their interaction effects. We develop a conceptual model to explain the effects on capital costs and test the resulting hypotheses in a broad sample of 344 firms from diverse industries using data from the 1991–2006 period.Our results suggest that higher satisfaction ratings reduce both the cost of equity and cost of debt, whereas brand value and corporate reputation only show a negative direct association with the cost of debt. In addition, both measures moderate the effect of satisfaction on the cost of debt. Brand value attenuates the influence of satisfaction, whereas corporate reputation amplifies this effect.
Besiou, Maria, Alfonso J. Pedraza-Martinez and Luk N. Van Wassenhove (2014): Vehicle Supply Chains in Humanitarian Operations: Decentralization, Operational Mix, and Earmarked Funding, Production and Operations Management, 23 (11): 1950-1965.
Abstract: The work of international humanitarian organizations (IHOs) frequently involves operating in remote locations, decentralized decision-making, and the simultaneous implementation of development and disaster response programs. A large proportion of this work is funded by “earmarked” donations, since donors often exhibit a preference for the programs they are willing to fund. From extensive research involving qualitative descriptions and quantitative data, and applying system dynamics methodology, we model vehicle supply chains (VSCs) in support of humanitarian field operations. Our efforts encompass the often-overlooked decentralized environment by incorporating the three different VSC structures that IHOs operate, as well as examining the entire mix of development and disaster response programs, and the specific (and virtually unexplored) effects of earmarked funding. Our results suggest that earmarked funding causes a real—and negative—operational impact on humanitarian disaster response programs in a decentralized setting.
Sodhi, ManMohan S. and Christopher S. Tang (2014): Guiding the next generation of doctoral students in operations management, International Journal of Production Economics, 150: 28-36.
Abstract: This paper presents ways for senior researchers to help future doctoral students in Operations Management (OM) to overcome multiple challenges in the following: (a) conducting relevant research while demonstrating greater rigor, and (b) exploring multi-disciplinary research projects while mastering a single research method. Recognizing that knowledge is generally created in four broad stages ((I) awareness, (II) framing, (III) modeling and (IV) validation), we first argue that different research approaches (analytical, behavioral, case study, or empirical) serve different roles in each of these stages: (1) case study approach for awareness, (2) empirical methods for framing, (3) analytical modeling for modeling and analysis, and (4) behavioral for validation in the real world. Then we discuss ways to enable doctoral students to overcome the aforementioned challenges.
Strauch, Steve, Vasilios Andrikopoulos, Dimka Karastoyanova, Frank Leymann, Nikolay Nachev and Albrecht Stäbler (2014): Migrating enterprise applications to the cloud: methodology and evaluation, International Journal of Big Data Intelligence, 1 (3): 127-140.
Abstract: Migrating existing on-premise applications to the cloud is a complex and multi-dimensional task and may require adapting the applications themselves significantly. For example, when considering the migration of the database layer of an application, which provides data persistence and manipulation capabilities, it is necessary to address aspects like differences in the granularity of interactions and data confidentiality, and to enable the interaction of the application with remote data sources. In this work, we present a methodology for application migration to the cloud that takes these aspects into account. In addition, we also introduce a tool for decision support, application refactoring and data migration that assists application developers in realising this methodology. We evaluate the proposed methodology and enabling tool using a case study in collaboration with an IT enterprise.
Wagner, Stephan M., Kristoph Ullrich and Sandra Transchel (2014): The game plan for aligning the organization, Business Horizons, 57 (2): 189-201.
Abstract: Better-aligned operational and strategic plans and a better balance of supply and demand bring tangible benefits to firms. However, functional departments in firms often operate without vertical and horizontal alignment. The outcomes are delays and amplification of the information flow, suboptimal corporate plans, uncoordinated reactions within the business, insufficient operational flexibility, and discrepancies in supply and demand. Sales and operations planning (S&OP) can circumvent these negative consequences and align the organization. Our multi-method research develops a holistic S&OP maturity model that firms can use for the assessment of their internal S&OP processes and shows the pathway to an integrated S&OP approach for the achievement of a better-aligned organization. We present a case study of a medium-sized, Swiss-based pharmaceutical company that has recently implemented S&OP to highlight why companies implement S&OP, the prerequisites and roadblocks encountered during implementation, and the benefits envisioned and achieved. Finally, we reveal the great relevance of the topic by means of a questionnaire survey which shows that organizations’ current S&OP performance is underdeveloped and that many improvements are indispensable to enjoy all benefits associated with the alignment process.
van Loon, Patricia, Alan C. McKinnon, Lieven Deketele and Joost Dewaele (2014): The Growth of Online Retailing: a Review of its Carbon Impacts, Carbon Management, 5 (3).
Abstract: This paper examines the carbon impact of online retailing and compares it with that of conventional retailing. It discusses the effect of varying the scope of the calculation, the system boundaries and the underlying assumptions. While most of the carbon emissions come from the last-mile delivery, this is also the activity whose carbon intensity is most sensitive to assumptions made about consumer behavior. On the basis of an extensive literature review, the paper also explores the carbon impacts of the upstream supply chain, energy use in information and communication technology and several aspects of travel behavior. This should help researchers to make wider and more realistic assessments of the environmental impact of online retailing. On the basis of these assessments, one can test the conditions under which online shopping is likely to have a lower carbon footprint.
Balka, Kerstin, Christina Raasch and Cornelius Herstatt (2014): The Effect of Selective Openness on Value Creation in User Innovation Communities, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31 (2): 392-407.
Abstract: Open innovation research and practice recognize the important role of external complementors in value creation. At the same time, firms need to retain exclusive control over some essential components to capture value from their product and/or service system. This paper contributes to the literature by analyzing some of the trade-offs between openness to external value creation and closedness for internal value capture. It focuses on selective openness as a key variable and investigates how it affects value creation by external complementors, specifically the members of user innovation communities. Openness, it is hypothesized, matters to community members: The more open a product design is, the higher their sense of involvement in the innovation project, and the larger the effort they devote to it. Unlike prior literature, different forms and loci of openness are distinguished, specifically the transparency, accessibility, and replicability of different components of the product being developed.Hypotheses are tested based on survey data (n = 309) from 20 online communities in the consumer electronics and information technology hardware industries. Multilevel regression analysis is used to account for clustering, and thus nonindependent data, at the community level. We find that openness indeed increases community members’ involvement in the innovation project and their contributions to it. Interestingly, however, some forms and loci of openness strongly affect community perceptions and behavior, while others have limited or no impact. This finding suggests that, at least in relation to user communities, the trade-off that firms face between external value creation and internal value capture is softer than hitherto understood. Contingency factors that may be able to explain these patterns are advanced. For example, users are expected to value the form of openness that they have the capabilities and incentives to exploit.The findings in this paper extend the literature on selective openness in innovation. They emphasize the need to study the demand for different forms of openness at the subsystem level and align supply-side strategies to it. In managerial practice, a careful assessment of the demand for openness enables firms to successfully use selective openness and to effectively appropriate value from selectively open systems.
Chopra, Sunil and ManMohan S. Sodhi (2014): Reducing the risk of supply chain disruptions, MIT Sloan Management Review, 55 (3).
Abstract: Most managers know that they should protect their supply chains from serious and costly disruptions — but comparatively few take action. The dilemma: Solutions to reduce risk mean little unless they are evaluated against their impact on cost efficiency.
Singhal, Kalyan, ManMohan S. Sodhi and Christopher S. Tang (2014): POMS Initiatives for Promoting Practice-Driven Research and Research-Influenced Practice, Production and Operations Management, 23 (5): 725-727.
Abstract: The Production and Operations Management Society ( POMS) and Production and Operations Management ( POM) have developed new initiatives with these objectives: (1) to disseminate managerial insights of articles published in POM to practitioners, MBA students, and participants in executive development programs; (2) to solicit descriptions of current and emerging problems from practitioners and share them with academics; and (3) to recognize academic research based on direct work with practitioners. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]Copyright of Production & Operations Management is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Goel, Asvin (2014): Hours of Service Regulations in the United States and the 2013 Rule Change, Transport Policy, 33: 48-55.
Abstract: This paper studies the revised hours of serviceregulations for truck drivers in the United States which entered intoforce in July 2013. It provides a detailed model of the new regulationand presents and a new simulation-based method to assess the impact ofthe rule change on operational costs and road safety. Unlike previousmethodologies, the proposed methodology for assessing the impact ofhours of service regulations takes into account that, by optimizingroutes and schedules, carriers can minimize the economic impact ofstricter regulations. Simulation experiments are conducted indicatingthat the monetized safety benfiet of reducing the daily driving timelimits is on the same order of magnitude as the increase in operationalcosts.
Goel, Asvin and Thibaut Vidal (2014): Hours of Service Regulations in Road Freight Transport: An Optimization-Based International Assessment, Transportation Science, 48 (3): 391-412.
Abstract: Driver fatigue is internationally recognized as a significant factor in approximately 15%–20% of commercial road transport crashes. In their efforts to increase road safety and improve working conditions of truck drivers, governments worldwide are enforcing stricter limits on the amount of working and driving time without rest. This paper describes an effective optimization algorithm for minimizing transportation costs for a fleet of vehicles considering business hours of customers and hours of service regulations. The algorithm combines the exploration capacities of population-based metaheuristics, the quick improvement abilities of local search, with forward labeling procedures for checking compliance with complex hours of service regulations. Several speed-up techniques are proposed to achieve an overall efficient approach. The proposed approach is used to assess the impact of different hours of service regulations from a carrier-centric point of view. Extensive computational experiments for various sets of regulations in the United States, Canada, the European Union, and Australia are conducted to provide an international assessment of the impact of different rules on transportation costs and accident risks. Our experiments demonstrate that European Union rules lead to the highest safety, whereas Canadian regulations are the most competitive in terms of economic efficiency. Australian regulations appear to have unnecessarily high risk rates with respect to operating costs. The recent rule change in the United States reduces accident risk rates with a moderate increase in operating costs.
Fandrich, Thomas, Christian Barrot and Jan U. Becker (2014): Deckungsbeitragsorientierte Steuerung von Targeting-Kampagnen, Schmalenbachs Zeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung, 66 (11): 602-625.
Abstract: Eine Vielzahl von Studien konnte zeigen, dass sich die Konversionsraten in der Neukundenan- sprache durch Targeting steigern lassen. Konkrete Aussagen über den ökonomischen Erfolg von Targeting-Kampagnen können allerdings auf dieser Basis bisher nicht getroffen werden. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt daher eine deckungsbeitragsorientierte Sichtweise zur Bewer- tung des Targeting vor, so dass eine Einschätzung zur Profitabilität bereits vor der Durchfüh- rung von Targeting-Kampagnen möglich ist. Auf Basis dieser Überlegungen wird erläutert, wie ein deckungsbeitragsorientiertes Targeting in der Unternehmenspraxis anzuwenden ist und wann sich die gezielte gegenüber der ungezielten Kundenansprache auszahlt.
Hühn, Matthias P. (2014): The De-Ethicisation of Economics and Teaching Business Ethics, Academy of Management Proceedings, 2014 (1).
Abstract: This paper argues that economics as a scientific discipline has gone through three phases – each further removing it from what it clearly should be and what is was intended to be by its founder: a social science. From Adam Smith's view of economics as social science, via 19th century economics where the natural sciences were adopted as a role model (economics as social physics) to the current understanding, which seems to define economics as a formal science (economics as mathematics). Economics, and with it management, has been systematically de-socialised and de-ethicised over the past 200 years and during that time, the rational actor approach has gained unassailable paradigmatic status, despite its obvious shortcomings. Questions about the role of ethics are rarely asked as ethics plays no role in what has bee turned into a formal science. Partial critiques and especially critiques of more recent trends in business theory will not be able to shake a 200 year-old ideology. If one wants to change the way management is taught in business schools with regards to ethics and epistemology one will have to systematically address the very foundations of business theory created two hundred years ago.
Hoberg, Kai and Ulrich W. Thonemann (2014): Modeling and analyzing information delays in supply chains using transfer functions, International Journal of Production Economics, 156: 132-145.
Abstract: Advanced inventory policies require timely system-wide information on inventories and customer demand to accurately control the entire supply chain. However, the presence of unsynchronized processes, processing lags or inadequate communication structures hinder the widespread availability of real-time information. Therefore, inventory systems often have to deal with obsolete data which can seriously harm the overall supply chain performance. In this paper, we apply transfer function methods to analyze the effect of information delays on the performance of supply chains. We expose the common echelon-stock policy to information delays and determine to what extent a delay in inventory information and point-of-sale data deteriorates the inventory policies׳ performance. We compare the performance of this policy with the performance of an installation-stock policy that is independent of information delays since it only requires local information. We find that this simple policy should be preferred in certain settings compared to relying on a complex policy with outdated system-wide information. We derive an echelon-stock policy that compensates for information delays and show that its performance improves significantly in their presence. We note potential applications of the approach in service parts supply chains, the hardwood supply chain, and in fast moving consumer goods settings.
Baur, Dirk G. (2014): Gold mining companies and the price of gold, Review of Financial Economics, 23 (4): 174-181.
Abstract: This paper studies the exposure of Australian gold mining firms to changes in the gold price. We use a theoretical framework to formulate testable hypotheses regarding the gold exposure of gold mining firms. The empirical analysis based on all gold mining firms in the S&P/ASX All Ordinaries Gold Index for the period from January 1980 to December 2010 finds that the average gold beta is around one but varies significantly through time. The relatively low average gold beta is attributed to the hedging and diversification of gold mining firms. We further find an asymmetric effect in gold betas, i.e. the gold exposure increases with positive gold price changes and decreases with negative gold price changes consistent with gold mining companies exercising real options on gold.
Acciaro, Michele, Hilda Ghiara and Maria Inés Cusano (2014): Energy management in seaports: A new role for port authorities, Energy Policy, 71: 4-12.
Abstract: Ports are characterised by the geographical concentration of high–energy demand and supply activities, because of their proximity to power generation facilities and metropolitan regions, and their functions as central hubs in the transport of raw materials. In the last decades the need to better understand and monitor energy-related activities taking place near or within the port has become more apparent as a consequence of the growing relevance of energy trades, public environmental awareness and a bigger industry focus on energy efficiency. The uptake in the port sector of innovative technologies, such as onshore power supply, or alternative fuels, such as LNG, and the increasing development of renewable energy installations in port areas, also calls for more attention to energy matters within port management.So far, however, few port authorities have actively pursued energy management strategies. The necessity for port authorities to actively manage their energy flows stems from their efforts to plan, coordinate and facilitate the development of economic activities within the port, and as a consequence of the heavier weight that sustainability is given within the port management strategies.Through the analysis of the experiences of two European ports, Hamburg and Genoa, that have already attempted to coordinate and rationalise their energy needs, this paper will argue that for the ports of the future active energy management can offer substantial efficiency gains, can contribute to the development of new alternative revenue sources and in the end, improve the competitive position of the port.
Acciaro, Michele, Thierry Vanelslander, Christa Sys, Claudio Ferrari, Athena Roumboutsos, Genevieve Giuliano, Lam, Jasmine Siu Lee and Seraphim Kapros (2014): Environmental sustainability in seaports: a framework for successful innovation, Maritime Policy & Management, 41 (5): 480-500.
Abstract: Environmental sustainability in the port industry is of growing concern for port authorities, policy makers, port users and local communities. Innovation can provide a solution to the main environmental issues, but often meets resistance. While certain types of technological or organisational innovation can be satisfactorily analysed using closed system theories, in the case of seaports and in particular in the area of environmental sustainability, more advanced conceptual frameworks have to be considered. These frameworks need to be able to account for the multiple stakeholder nature of the port industry and of the network and vertical interactions that environmental sustainability calls for. This article investigates successful innovations improving environmental sustainability of seaports. The proposed framework builds in part on research concepts developed in the InnoSuTra EU FP7 project. From a methodological perspective, this article develops a method for quantifying the degree of success of innovation with respect to a set of specific objectives. Several case studies are used to test the framework against real innovation examples, such as onshore power supply, or alternative fuels. In this article, we argue that only those innovations that fit dynamically port actors’ demands and the port institutional environment stand a chance to succeed.