The KLU faculty, post-docs, and PhD candidates regularly publish the results of their research in scientific journals. You will find a complete overview of all KLU publications below (e.g. articles in peer-reviewed journals, professional journals, books, working papers, and conference proceedings). Search for relevant terms and keywords, or filter the list by name, year of publication or type of publication. The references include DOIs and abstracts where available, and you can download them to your own reference database or platform. We regularly update the database with new publications.

Journal Articles (Peer-Reviewed)

Copy reference link   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2013.12.020

Abstract: AbstractMotivated by a particular multinational cutting-tools manufacturer, we extend the traditional economic order quantity (EOQ) model for maintenance-repair-and-overhaul (MRO) customers under stochastic purchase price and use it to show how price variance leads to bullwhip effect for the MRO manufacturer despite constant consumption by the customer. Our extension of the EOQ model is based on two assumptions that are reasonable for MRO customers: (a) customer consumption rate of the product is constant; and (b) the customer places each order when the inventory level drops to a pre-specified level (say, zero). We determine the customer's optimal ordering quantity in closed form expressions, which enables us to examine the impact of sales price variance on the variance in the orders the customer places on the manufacturer, thus creating a pricing-induced bullwhip effect. We then extend our analysis to multiple products and multiple customer segments and discuss ways for the manufacturer to mitigate the variance in the customer's orders.

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Abstract: Feeling safe and secure is a core need of human beings. As belonging to an ethnic minority can be associated with decreased subjective security, the question as to whether integration and police presence can positively contribute to the subjective security of persons with a Turkish migration background (TMB) naturally arises. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of 17 interviews with persons with a TMB showed that most felt very safe in Germany. Although police presence positively correlated with subjective security in the quantitative analysis, integration into the family and the neighbourhood was the main explanation for the high degree of subjective security in the qualitative analysis. Practical recommendations based on these findings are given, as are the implications for future security research.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s10551-013-1733-z

Abstract: This paper argues that the MBA, probably the most successful academic program of the last 50 years, negatively affects the theory and practice of management with regard to ethics through its pedagogy, structure, and its underlying epistemic assumptions. In particular I seek to demonstrate how the syllabus, the pedagogy and the epistemological assumptions of MBA programs together make managers/leaders unable and unwilling to deal with ethics. I also argue that while the what (content) and the how (pedagogy) play a very important role, it was only the emergence of a radical philosophical underpinning (the why) that has put management education on a negative trajectory. The paper thus examines MBA education from a meta-level perspective, connecting the pedagogical model with epistemological beliefs.

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Copy reference link   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.irfa.2013.12.007

Abstract: AbstractIn this paper we analyze the constant and time-varying influence of currency movements on the value of Australian firms listed on the S&P/ASX 100 index for a period from 1980 to 2010 using daily, weekly, monthly and quarterly returns. Whilst the constant exposure model provides only weak evidence over the full sample period the time-varying exposure analysis reveals that most firms are exposed to currency movements in some periods. The exchange rate exposure of Australian firms is dependent on the appreciation or depreciation trajectory of the Australian dollar and on the sample frequencies used. The positive average FX exposure is consistent with the structure of the Australian economy, the size of the mining sector and the role of the Australian dollar as a commodity currency. Finally, we argue that our findings are fully consistent with financial theory and do not constitute a puzzle.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1007/s10551-013-1663-9

Abstract: Although the proportion of women in leadership positions has grown over the past decades, women are still underrepresented in leadership roles, which poses an ethical challenge to society at large but business in particular. Accordingly, a growing body of research has attempted to unravel the reasons for this inequality. Besides theoretical progress, a central goal of these studies is to inform measures targeted at increasing the share of women in leadership positions. Striving to contribute to these efforts and drawing on several theoretical approaches, the present study provides a contemporary examination of (a) whether women and men differ in their levels of power motivation and (b) whether potential gender differences in this motivation contribute to the unequal distribution of women and men in leadership positions. Results from four studies provide converging support for these assumptions. Specifically, we found that women consistently reported lower power motivation than men. This in turn mediated the link between gender and leadership role occupancy. These results were robust to several methodological variations including samples from different populations (i.e., student samples and large heterogeneous samples of employee), diverse operationalizations of power motivation and leadership role occupancy (self- and other ratings), and study design (cross-sectional and time-lagged designs). Implications for theory and practice, including ways to contribute to a more equal gender distribution in leadership positions, are discussed.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1177/1742715013476081

Abstract: Leader categorization theory proposes that subordinates perceive leaders against the backdrop of a cognitively represented leader prototype. The match between the two ultimately determines how favourably subordinates respond towards leaders. The respective research, however, yields some confusion as to what kind of prototype is exactly used in this process. Are leaders matched against a central tendency leader prototype, i.e. to an average image of leaders in general, or is it subordinates' goal-directed leader prototype, i.e. their image of an ideal leader, that leaders have to live up to? We reanalysed a field study (N = 266) and conducted a second one likewise with employees (N = 271) to contrast the relevance of both prototypes. The analyses reveal that only the match with the ideal leader prototype was predictive of subordinates’ responses towards their leaders. Previous central tendency leader categorization research thus might have pertained to the ideal aspects in the existing leader population.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1111/ijmr.12017

Abstract: Motives and values at work have long been key topics of business and management studies. In a focused review of the literature on the nature of human values, this paper identifies a disconnect with the literature on human motivation, despite the otherwise inherent relatedness of the two fields. Specifically, extant theory and research have conceptualized values generally in terms of ideals, namely desired end-states that individuals strive to approach. Although values, by this definition, express motivational concerns, theories of human motivation suggest that there are two forces to consider, i.e. approach and avoidance motivation. By applying this ‘two forces’ perspective to value research, this paper identifies a gap in the literature on values: namely, the idea that individuals are also influenced by counter-ideal values, i.e. end-states that they deliberately seek to avoid. The identification of this gap opens up new opportunities for value research in general and organizational value research in particular. To pave the way for future research, this paper critically discusses the few studies that have taken first steps in that direction and outlines research questions that may follow for issues such as employer branding and person–organization fit. This paper closes by providing suggestions on how to tackle the issue in organizational practice.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1080/13546805.2013.819781

Abstract: IntroductionParanoid beliefs strongly impact behaviour and emotion: Most people with paranoid delusions engage in safety behaviours and a relevant minority even commits violent acts under the influence of delusional thoughts. The present study examined whether different levels of belief conviction modulate subsequent behaviour and emotion. To be able to control for important confounds, we set up an analogue study using nonclinical participants.MethodsParticipants were recruited from the general population (N=1935) and asked to fill out the Paranoia Checklist. Individuals had to imagine being persecuted by a secret service, whereby the level of subjective conviction was set at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, or 100%. Subsequently, participants had to estimate for 37 behavioural and emotional items how they might respond to this threat.ResultsThree quarters of the sample affirmed the presence of at least one paranoid idea from the Paranoia Checklist over the duration of a month. The level of belief conviction and paranoia was positively associated with behavioural and emotional consequences.ConclusionsOur investigation suggests that a higher degree of belief conviction aggravates the behavioural consequences of persecutory beliefs in a linear fashion. The study is limited by its “what if” character and should be replicated with clinical participants. The study suggests that treatment approaches that aim to reduce overconviction may positively impact behaviour in psychosis.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1177/0956797613519110

Abstract: Adequate perception of bodily sensations is essential to protect health. However, misinterpretation of signals from within the body is common and can be fatal, for example, in asthma or cardiovascular disease. We suggest that placing interoceptive stimuli into interoceptive categories (e.g., the category of symptoms vs. the category of benign sensations) leads to perceptual generalization effects that may underlie misinterpretation. In two studies, we presented stimuli inducing respiratory effort (respiratory loads) either organized into categories or located on a continuous dimension. We found pervasive effects of categorization on magnitude estimations, affective stimulus evaluations, stimulus recognition, and breathing behavior. These findings indicate the need for broadening perspectives on interoception to include basal processes of stimulus organization, in order for interoceptive bias to be understood. The results are relevant to a wide range of interoception-related phenomena, from emotion to symptom perception.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1002/mar.20686

Abstract: Values are an important concept in marketing because they comprise part of peoples’ identity and can thus help marketers separate and target different audiences. Unsurprisingly, places and their marketing initiatives increasingly try to appeal to (potential) residents’ identity by communicating core values. While the notion of value congruence is not novel, most empirical methods in marketing to date only account for the degree rather than the level of congruence. To address this issue, the present article utilizes polynomial regression and response surface methodology (Edwards & Parry, 1993) in the context of place marketing. Accordingly, the first study shows that the perceived congruence of residents’ own values and the values of stereotypical city inhabitants significantly affect residents’ feelings about their own cities (N = 1257), but with different effects for different values and levels of congruence. This finding holds not only for popular target groups such as the “creative class” but also across all groups. The second study (N = 449) shows that city slogans can effectively communicate specific values and that value congruence leads to a more positive evaluation of the city brand. Finally, the article discusses the benefits of differentiating between levels of congruence both in marketing research in general, and place brand management in particular.

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Copy reference link   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jedc.2014.01.001

Abstract: AbstractThe increase in the price of gold between 2002 and 2011 appears to be a candidate for a potential asset price ‘bubble’, suggesting that chartists (feedback traders) were highly active in the gold market during this period. Hence, this paper develops and tests empirically several models incorporating heterogeneous expectations of agents, specifically fundamentalists and chartists, for the gold market. The empirical results show that both agent types are important in explaining historical gold prices but that the 10-year bull run of gold in the early 2000s is consistent with the presence of agents extrapolating long-term trends. Technically this paper is a further step toward providing an empirical foundation for certain assumptions used in the heterogeneous agents literature. For example, the empirical results presented in this paper compare the economical and statistical significance of numerous switching variable specifications that are generally only introduced ad hoc.

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Copy reference link   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2014.04.013

Abstract: Ports are characterised by the geographical concentration of high–energy demand and supply activities, because of their proximity to power generation facilities and metropolitan regions, and their functions as central hubs in the transport of raw materials. In the last decades the need to better understand and monitor energy-related activities taking place near or within the port has become more apparent as a consequence of the growing relevance of energy trades, public environmental awareness and a bigger industry focus on energy efficiency. The uptake in the port sector of innovative technologies, such as onshore power supply, or alternative fuels, such as LNG, and the increasing development of renewable energy installations in port areas, also calls for more attention to energy matters within port management.So far, however, few port authorities have actively pursued energy management strategies. The necessity for port authorities to actively manage their energy flows stems from their efforts to plan, coordinate and facilitate the development of economic activities within the port, and as a consequence of the heavier weight that sustainability is given within the port management strategies.Through the analysis of the experiences of two European ports, Hamburg and Genoa, that have already attempted to coordinate and rationalise their energy needs, this paper will argue that for the ports of the future active energy management can offer substantial efficiency gains, can contribute to the development of new alternative revenue sources and in the end, improve the competitive position of the port.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.12.044

Abstract: Studies revealed that patients with paranoid schizophrenia display overconfidence in errors for memory and social cognition tasks. The present investigation examined whether this pattern holds true for visual perception tasks.Nonclinical participants were recruited via an online panel. Individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire that included the Paranoia Checklist and were then presented with 24 blurry pictures; half contained a hidden object while the other half showed snowy (visual) noise. Participants were asked to state whether the visual items contained an object and how confident they were in their judgment. Data from 1966 individuals were included following a conservative selection process.Participants high on core paranoid symptoms showed a poor calibration of confidence for correct versus incorrect responses. In particular, participants high on paranoia displayed overconfidence in incorrect responses and demonstrated a 20% error rate for responses made with high confidence compared to a 12% error rate in participants with low paranoia scores. Interestingly, paranoia scores declined after performance of the task.For the first time, overconfidence in errors was demonstrated among individuals with high levels of paranoia using a visual perception task, tentatively suggesting it is a ubiquitous phenomenon. In view of the significant decline in paranoia across time, bias modification programs may incorporate items such as the one employed here to teach patients with clinical paranoia the fallibility of human cognition, which may foster subsequent symptom improvement.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2014.03.042

Abstract: To understand how real investors use their beliefs and preferences in investing decisions, we examine a panel survey of self-directed online investors at a UK bank. The survey asks for return expectations, risk expectations, and risk tolerance of these investors in three-month intervals between 2008 and 2010. We combine the survey data with investors’ actual trading data and portfolio holdings. We find that investor beliefs have little predictive power for immediate trading behavior. The exception is a positive effect of increases in return expectation on buying activity. Portfolio risk levels and changes are more systematically related to return and risk expectations. In line with financial theory, risk taking increases with return expectations and decreases with risk expectations. In response to their expectations, investors also adjust the riskiness of assets they trade.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1111/poms.12161

Abstract: Many social enterprises and some companies have developed supply chains with the poor as suppliers or distributors to alleviate poverty and to create revenues for themselves. Such supply chains have created new research opportunities because they raise issues fundamentally different from those examined in the existing operations management literature. We report this phenomenon of supply chains with the poor as suppliers or distributors in developing countries and identify operations management (OM) research opportunities. We also provide some stylized models to serve as potential seeds for modeling-based research in this area.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:10.1007/s00181-013-0787-1

Abstract: This paper analyzes the long-run relationship between gold and silver prices. We closely follow Escribano and Granger (J Forecast 17:81–107, 1998) and extend their study. We use a longer sample period from 1970 to 2011 and study the role of bubbles and financial crises for the relationship between gold and silver prices. We find clear evidence for a co-integration relationship between gold and silver with gold prices driving the relationship. The analysis also indicates that the results are influenced by bubble-like episodes and financial crises.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1287/trsc.2013.0477

Abstract: Driver fatigue is internationally recognized as a significant factor in approximately 15%–20% of commercial road transport crashes. In their efforts to increase road safety and improve working conditions of truck drivers, governments worldwide are enforcing stricter limits on the amount of working and driving time without rest. This paper describes an effective optimization algorithm for minimizing transportation costs for a fleet of vehicles considering business hours of customers and hours of service regulations. The algorithm combines the exploration capacities of population-based metaheuristics, the quick improvement abilities of local search, with forward labeling procedures for checking compliance with complex hours of service regulations. Several speed-up techniques are proposed to achieve an overall efficient approach. The proposed approach is used to assess the impact of different hours of service regulations from a carrier-centric point of view. Extensive computational experiments for various sets of regulations in the United States, Canada, the European Union, and Australia are conducted to provide an international assessment of the impact of different rules on transportation costs and accident risks. Our experiments demonstrate that European Union rules lead to the highest safety, whereas Canadian regulations are the most competitive in terms of economic efficiency. Australian regulations appear to have unnecessarily high risk rates with respect to operating costs. The recent rule change in the United States reduces accident risk rates with a moderate increase in operating costs.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.14257/ijt.2014.2.1.03

Abstract: Logistics optimization problems are often complex (NP - hard). Especially for large problem scopes in logistics and new agent-based freight transport models which have to solve these problems for many agents, simplifying modelling and solving procedures are necessary in order to reduce the level of complexity. Due to the variety of existing approaches and the specifics of each problem it is often difficult to find an appropriate method. This paper seeks to facilitate this process as it identifies ‘meta’ heuristics within literature, i.e. abstract courses of action that, when adapted, have proven successful in various problems. It presents a classification of general simplification principles that are useful for reducing the complexity of logistics problems, in order to facilitate understanding between academics and practice. The derivation of the related principles is based on the examination of five problems in logistics literature: facility location, distribution system, lot size, bin packing, and vehicle routing.

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Copy reference link   DOI: doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2014.04.001

Abstract: In a panel survey of individual investors, we show that investors’ second-order beliefs—their beliefs about the return expectations of other investors—influence investment decisions. Investors who believe others hold more optimistic stock market expectations allocate more of their own portfolio to stocks even after controlling for their own risk and return expectations. However, second-order beliefs are inaccurate and exhibit several well-known psychological biases. We observe both the tendency of investors to believe that their own opinion is relatively more common among the population (false consensus) and that others who hold divergent beliefs are considered to be biased (bias blind spot).

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.bushor.2013.11.002

Abstract: Better-aligned operational and strategic plans and a better balance of supply and demand bring tangible benefits to firms. However, functional departments in firms often operate without vertical and horizontal alignment. The outcomes are delays and amplification of the information flow, suboptimal corporate plans, uncoordinated reactions within the business, insufficient operational flexibility, and discrepancies in supply and demand. Sales and operations planning (S&OP) can circumvent these negative consequences and align the organization. Our multi-method research develops a holistic S&OP maturity model that firms can use for the assessment of their internal S&OP processes and shows the pathway to an integrated S&OP approach for the achievement of a better-aligned organization. We present a case study of a medium-sized, Swiss-based pharmaceutical company that has recently implemented S&OP to highlight why companies implement S&OP, the prerequisites and roadblocks encountered during implementation, and the benefits envisioned and achieved. Finally, we reveal the great relevance of the topic by means of a questionnaire survey which shows that organizations’ current S&OP performance is underdeveloped and that many improvements are indispensable to enjoy all benefits associated with the alignment process.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1111/poms.12173

Abstract: The manufacturing complexity of many high-tech products results in a substantial variation in the quality of the units produced. After manufacturing, the units are classified into vertically differentiated products. These products are typically obtained in uncontrollable fractions, leading to mismatches between their demand and supply. We focus on product stockouts due to the supply–demand mismatches. Existing literature suggests that when faced with product stockouts, firms should satisfy all unmet demand of a low-end product by downgrading excess units of a high-end product (downward substitution). However, this policy may be suboptimal if it is likely that low-end customers will substitute with a higher quality product and pay the higher price (upward substitution). In this study, we investigate whether and how much downward substitution firms should perform. We also investigate whether and how much low-end inventory firms should withhold to strategically divert some low-end demand to the high-end product. We first establish the existence of regions of co-production technology and willingness of customers to substitute upward where firms adopt different substitution/withholding strategies. Then, we develop a managerial framework to determine the optimal selling strategy during the life cycle of technology products as profit margins shrink, manufacturing technology improves, and more capacity becomes available. Consistent trends exist for exogenous and endogenous prices.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1111/poms.12215

Abstract: The work of international humanitarian organizations (IHOs) frequently involves operating in remote locations, decentralized decision-making, and the simultaneous implementation of development and disaster response programs. A large proportion of this work is funded by “earmarked” donations, since donors often exhibit a preference for the programs they are willing to fund. From extensive research involving qualitative descriptions and quantitative data, and applying system dynamics methodology, we model vehicle supply chains (VSCs) in support of humanitarian field operations. Our efforts encompass the often-overlooked decentralized environment by incorporating the three different VSC structures that IHOs operate, as well as examining the entire mix of development and disaster response programs, and the specific (and virtually unexplored) effects of earmarked funding. Our results suggest that earmarked funding causes a real—and negative—operational impact on humanitarian disaster response programs in a decentralized setting.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1111/poms.12111

Abstract: Floods are the most frequent category of disasters worldwide. Among all geographic regions, Asia has suffered the most. While there are several ongoing humanitarian efforts and initiatives, we believe there is a new opportunity to coordinate “last mile” humanitarian efforts in the event of a flood using micro-retailers. Because micro-retailers are the “last mile” nodes in traditional retail supply chains in many Asian countries, we propose the use of social enterprise to buttress these supply chains for distribution of essential goods by coordinating with micro-retailers before and after floods. We also present a stylized model to quantify the benefits of doing so.

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Copy reference link   DOI: 10.1016/j.rfe.2014.07.001

Abstract: This paper studies the exposure of Australian gold mining firms to changes in the gold price. We use a theoretical framework to formulate testable hypotheses regarding the gold exposure of gold mining firms. The empirical analysis based on all gold mining firms in the S&P/ASX All Ordinaries Gold Index for the period from January 1980 to December 2010 finds that the average gold beta is around one but varies significantly through time. The relatively low average gold beta is attributed to the hedging and diversification of gold mining firms. We further find an asymmetric effect in gold betas, i.e. the gold exposure increases with positive gold price changes and decreases with negative gold price changes consistent with gold mining companies exercising real options on gold.

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