Journal Articles (Peer-Reviewed)
(2023): Marvelous advertising returns? A meta-analysis of advertising elasticities in the entertainment industry, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science: .
Abstract: How does advertising affect supply and demand in the entertainment industry? Different advertising and distribution mechanisms and unique product characteristics limit the transferability of findings from other industries to the entertainment industry. This meta-analysis focuses on 290 documented elasticities, drawn from 59 studies of movies and video games, and establishes new findings and empirical generalizations. First, the average advertising elasticity in the entertainment industry is .33 (method bias-corrected .20), approximately three times higher than the average identified for other industries. Second, average advertising elasticities are higher for demand (e.g., revenue) than for supply (e.g., screens). Third, elasticities of pre-launch advertising are higher than those of overall advertising budgets, but with respect to the success period, elasticities are higher for later periods, and in total, compared to the launch period. Fourth, elasticities tend to be rather recession-proof and consistent across geographic regions but decreased after the rise of social media platforms.
(2022): The impact of COVID-19 on music consumption and music spending, PLOS ONE, 17 (5): .
Abstract: COVID-19 induced restrictions ordered by governments around the world have been an exogenous shock to the music industry, which we divide into two affected groups: 1) live music events and 2) recorded music. While the impact on live music events is rather obvious, it is unclear how the current pandemic is affecting the recorded music market. Hence, we study consumers’ pre- and post-pandemic shifts in consumer spending (in euros) and music consumption (in hours) across live music events, as well as the digital and physical submarkets of recorded music, in the world’s fourth largest music market, Germany. Relying on an online bi-annual panel capturing five waves between winter 2018/19 and winter 2020/21, we find that the COVID-19 pandemic is accelerating the continuous trend towards digitalization of the music landscape with premium streaming being the biggest beneficiary. However, total monthly consumer spending on music decreased by more than 45% compared to pre-pandemic, with live music events and physical sales being the most severely affected. Surprisingly, music consumption in hours also decreased during the lockdown even though consumers spent more time at home.
(2016): Accepting or Fighting Unlicensed Usage: Can Firms Reduce Unlicensed Usage by Optimizing their Timing and Pricing Strategies?, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 33 (2): 343-356.
Abstract: The rise of the Internet and new online services have led to the wide-scale illegal distribution of digital entertainment products, such as music, movies, games, and books. We analyze whether firms in the entertainment industry should fight unlicensed usage by providing specific offers that maximize the utility for segments relying on unlicensed usage, i.e., by optimizing timing and pricing strategies, or whether they should simply accept a certain level of unlicensed usage. We combine Becker's (1968) economic approach to analyzing social issues with random utility theory to develop a choice model for media products in which we account for unlicensed usage. We then apply the model in two large-scale empirical studies on movies and books. The results show that consumers who prefer unlicensed usage are sensitive to the marketing mix to some extent in both markets. However, optimizing timing and pricing only has limited impact on additional revenue generation. Thus, from a managerial perspective, it is very difficult to reduce the relative loss due to unlicensed usage by providing targeted offers.
(2016): What Drives the Market Popularity of Celebrities? A Longitudinal Analysis of Consumer Interest in Film Stars, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 33 (2): 428-448.
Abstract: The economic value of celebrity brands is heavily influenced by their ability to generate large-scale consumer interest. We develop a comprehensive framework for the drivers of celebrities' market popularity (in terms of consumer interest generated by celebrities) including variables related to actors, movies, and actor–movie fit. To test the framework, Internet search histories are examined for 161 film stars over the course of more than 6 years (January 2004–June 2010). In particular, we test three hypotheses. First, with regard to actor-related variables, we do not find support for the postulated inverted U-shaped effect from the frequency of movie appearances on the market popularity of film stars (H1). Rather, the results indicate a monotone and positive relationship between a film star's frequency of movie appearances and consumer interest in the film star. Second, with respect to movie-related factors, the findings indicate that both positive and negative abnormal movie revenues increase the popularity of film stars (H2). Third, concerning variables related to actor–movie fit, the results support the hypothesized U-shaped effect from actor–movie fit on the market popularity of film stars (H3). On a managerial level, this study provides insights for film stars on how to enhance their market popularity by increasing the frequency of their movie appearances and by selecting films that are likely to generate abnormal revenues and have a certain fit with their image.
(2015): The impact of pre- and post-launch publicity and advertising on new product sales, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 32 (2): 408-417.
Abstract: When companies launch new products, they need to understand the impact of publicity and advertising on sales. What is their relative effectiveness? Do they strengthen each other (have a positive interaction effect) or weaken each other (have a negative interaction effect)? Further, does the timing of these activities (before or after launch) affect their impact on sales? This paper develops hypotheses regarding the elasticities of pre- and post-launch publicity and advertising on sales. The hypotheses are tested on a large-scale empirical data set that tracks sales, publicity, and advertising for 3336 video games across 52 weeks covering the pre- and post-launch phases. The results demonstrate that pre-launch publicity is more effective than pre-launch advertising but that the reverse is true post-launch. Surprisingly, the analysis reveals a negative interaction effect between pre-launch advertising and publicity, which means that publicity becomes less effective when it is accompanied by higher levels of advertising for the same product. Simulations indicate that companies can gain most sales by focusing on publicity pre-launch, and that there is little benefit from increasing publicity and advertising during the same phase, which is consistent with negative (pre-launch) and zero (post-launch) interaction effects.