Journal Articles (Peer-Reviewed)
Salem, Mojtaba, Niels Van Quaquebeke and Maria Besiou (In press): Aid Worker Adaptability in Humanitarian Operations: Interplay of Prosocial Motivation and Authoritarian Leadership, Production and Operations Management.
Ruesch, Lea, Murat Tarakci, Maria Besiou and Niels Van Quaquebeke (2022): Orchestrating coordination among humanitarian organizations, Production and Operations Management.
Abstract: Disasters mobilize hundreds of humanitarian organizations. Despite the common aim to assist beneficiaries, coordination among humanitarian organizations remains a challenge. This is why the United Nations has formed clusters to facilitate information and resource exchange among humanitarian organizations. Yet, coordination failures in prior disasters raise questions as to the effectiveness of the cluster approach in coordinating relief efforts. To better understand barriers to coordination, we developed a grounded theory and augmented the theory with an agent-based simulation. Our theory discerns a cluster lead’s roles of facilitating coordination but also investing in its own ground operations. We find that specifically serving such a dual role impairs trust and consequent coordination among cluster members. The additional simulation findings generalize the detrimental effect of the cluster lead’s dual role versus a pure facilitator role and specifies it against various boundary conditions.
Kosmas, Vasileios, M. Acciaro and Maria Besiou (2022): Saving migrants' lives at sea: Improving search and rescue operations, Production and Operations Management.
Abstract: The present study focuses on the Mediterranean Sea migration crisis and investigates the effectiveness of search and rescue (SAR) operations alongside measures to reduce the number of deaths of migrants at sea. It also describes the stakeholders involved in SAR activities. The paper first analyzes secondary data and the results of 24 in-depth interviews in order to develop an analytical framework, which is then complemented by a system dynamics model to explore the complexity and interactions among stakeholders in SAR operations. The study shows that the death toll at sea can be reduced by enhancing cooperation among stakeholders by providing legal migration pathways under certain conditions and by engaging in more effective migrant detection and interception at sea. Lastly, raising potential migrants’ awareness about the risk of death during the sea crossing should be seen as an additional measure, while SAR activities should be maintained to prevent loss of life at sea.
Mohamadi, Navid, Hataw Bakhishi, Sandra Transchel and Maria Besiou (2022): Impact of pandemics on humanitarian retailing operations: A voucher´s case, Production and Operations Management.
Abstract: In 2020, the world started a fight against a pandemic that has severely disrupted commercial and humanitarian supply chains. Humanitarian organizations (HOs), like the World Food Programme (WFP), adjusted their programs in order to manage this pandemic. One such program is cash and voucher assistance (CVA), which is used to bolster beneficiaries' freedom of choice regarding their consumption. In this vein, WFP supports local retailers to provide CVA to beneficiaries who do not have access to a functioning market. However, the operations of these stores can suffer from a very high transmission risk of COVID-19 unless preventive measures are put in place to reduce it. This paper discusses strategies that retailers and HOs can enact to maximize their service and dignity levels while minimizing transmission risk under a CVA program during a pandemic. We argue that HOs providing CVA programs can improve their assistance during a pandemic by implementing strategies that impact the retailing operations of their retailers.
Besiou, Maria, Alfonso J. Pedraza-Martinez and Luk N. Van Wassenhove (2021): Humanitarian Operations and the UN Sustainable Development Goals, Production and Operations Management, 30 (12): 4343-4355.
Abstract: During emergencies humanitarian supply chains need to respond swiftly, very often without time for good planning. That may end up in excessive waste and emissions. This short-term focus on saving people’s lives during disaster responses may harm communities and the planet in the long-run. Even long-term (development) focus on improving the life conditions of the poor may be either unsustainable due to the lack of community involvement or inequitable due to lack of resources. At the same time, countries closer to fulfilling the United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs) suffer less from disasters but still struggle with issues such as social equity. There appears to be an important link between humanitarian operations and sustainable development goals. This special issue focuses on this interaction through a rich variety of contributions using different methodologies, data and lenses, while proposing ways to advance the SDGs. The special issue clearly shows the value operations management can bring to short-term and long-term problems society faces.
Besiou, Maria and Luk N. Van Wassenhove (2021): System dynamics for humanitarian operations revisited, Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this study is to show that the current complexity of humanitarian operations has only increased the usefulness of system dynamics (SD) in helping decision-makers better understand the challenges they face. Design/methodology/approach A critical analysis to evaluate how SD methodology has been applied to humanitarian operations. Findings Today's humanitarian operations are characterized by huge complexity given the increased number of stakeholders, feedback loops, uncertainty, scarce resources and multiple objectives. The authors argue that SD's tools (causal-loop diagram, data layer, simulation model) have the capacity to appropriately capture this complexity, thereby enhancing intuition and understanding. Originality/value Researchers and practitioners hesitate to use system dynamics when data is missing. The authors suggest alternatives to deal with this common situation.
Besiou, Maria and Luk N. Van Wassenhove (2020): Humanitarian Operations: A World of Opportunity for Relevant and Impactful Research, Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 22(1): 135-145.
Abstract: The number of people affected by disasters has increased over the past decades, whereas funding has declined. The need for effective humanitarian aid is, therefore, larger than ever. Humanitarian organizations have recognized the critical role of supply chain management in reaching beneficiaries, and they have introduced commercial routines and best practices. Academics realized that humanitarian operations constitute a fruitful new research area and adapted solution techniques developed for commercial operations to disaster situations with mitigated success. Meanwhile, the problems that humanitarian practitioners face quickly evolve. In this paper, we highlight challenges in matching practitioner needs with academic publications and outline the great opportunities for impactful and relevant research.
Turrini, Laura, Maria Besiou, Dominik Papies and Joern Meissner (2020): The role of operational expenditures and misalignments in fundraising for international humanitarian aid, Journal of Operations Management, 66: 379-417.
Abstract: Funding for international humanitarian aid falls far behind demand for disaster response, hampering the operations of international humanitarian organizations (IHOs). One remedy to close this gap is to increase the effectiveness of fundraising activities for IHOs. This remedy means spending as little as possible in fundraising activities but, at the same time, still receiving sufficient donations to implement disaster response programs in response to the needs that arise when disasters occur. We contribute to the literature by theoretically developing and estimating a conceptual framework that links donation behavior to the operations that IHOs aim to pursue; the framework incorporates operational costs communicated in appeals, fundraising efforts, and media attention. We argue that effects are not homogenous across disasters but that IHOs can leverage public attention and disaster and appeal characteristics, such as operational costs, to increase donations. We test the framework on a unique data set for disaster response programs operated by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), covering 174 disasters to which the IFRC responded between 2010 and 2017.
Prakash, Chandra, Maria Besiou, Charan Parikshit and Gupta S. Sumeet (2020): Organization theory in humanitarian operations: a review and suggested research agenda, Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 10 (2): 261-284.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to review the current application of organization theory (OT) in the humanitarian supply chain (HSC) and identify the future OT-based research opportunities that can advance knowledge of humanitarian operations. The study uses a systematic literature review methodology to identify the current status and future direction of the OT-based study in HSC literature. The applied theories are those that have been mentioned in at least two research articles in the HSC literature. The proposed theories are either adopted from the top four referred organizational theories in the supply chain literature or those that can explain the issue of information asymmetry in HSC. The study identifies and describes eight organizational theories and their possible future research questions in HSC. Among these, the first four theories (i.e. resource-based theory, resource dependence theory, social exchange theory and contingency theory) have already been initially applied in the humanitarian field, while the remaining theories (i.e. institutional theory, stakeholder theory, transactional cost theory and information theory) have potential for future application.
Urrea, Gloria, Alfonso J. Pedraza‐Martinez and Maria Besiou (2020): Volunteer Management in Charity Storehouses: Experience, Congestion and Operational Performance, Production and Operations Management, 28(10): 2653-2671.
Abstract: We study volunteer management at a charity storehouse operated by a large faith‐based organization. The storehouse runs entirely on volunteer efforts. We investigate the role of volunteer experience and storehouse congestion in the preparation of orders using a multi‐method approach. First, we conduct a field study to explore these relationships and collect data at the level of volunteers’ teams. These teams can pair volunteers with either different levels of experience (mixed pairing) or equal levels of experience (no‐mixed pairing). Second, we estimate the effects of volunteer experience and storehouse congestion on the order processing times empirically. Third, we build a simulation model to study how operational decisions—volunteers’ pairing in teams and whether to allow or impede storehouse congestion—affect two performance metrics: on‐time order preparation rate and additional time to prepare the orders, in steady conditions. Then, we simulate disaster conditions at the storehouse, that is, simultaneous surges in supply of volunteers and demand of orders. Contrary to extant literature on team collaboration, we find that no‐mixed pairing outperforms mixed pairing under disaster conditions with storehouse congestion. In fact, no‐mixed pairing improves the on‐time order preparation by 4.32% and the additional time to prepare the orders by 14.42% compared to mixed pairing. Moreover, under disaster conditions, a “controlled congestion” policy at the storehouse delivers the best performance metrics.
Salem, Mojtaba, Niels Van Quaquebeke, Maria Besiou and Louisa Meyer (2019): Intergroup leadership: How leaders can enhance performance of humanitarian operations, Production and Operations Management, 28 (11): 2877-2897.
Abstract: International humanitarian organizations (IHOs) always strive to improve their operational performance in the field. While anecdotes from practice suggest that IHO field office leadership plays a crucial role in this regard, these claims have not been deeply substantiated by primary data. In response, we collected survey data from 125 humanitarian workers, concentrated in disaster response and development programs, on the issues of field office leadership and operational performance. Building on the operations management and organizational behavior literature, we find that leaders who adopt an intergroup leadership style can significantly improve operational performance via enhancing cooperation between local and expatriate subgroups inside a field office. Notably, we find that the intergroup leadership style becomes more effective as humanitarian workers become more entrenched within cohesive subgroups. These results should help IHOs to better select and train their field office leaders and achieve higher operational performance.
Besiou, Maria, Alfonso J. Pedraza-Martinez and Luk N. Van Wassenhove (2018): OR applied to humanitarian operations, European Journal of Operational Research, 269 (2): 397-405.
Abstract: The humanitarian caseload is growing rapidly while funds are declining. The sector clearly will have to do more with less. Optimizing constrained resources is the strength of OR. Our discipline can strongly support humanitarian practitioners provided it works on pressing real problems and translates its research into easily implementable tools whose effectiveness can be verified. This Special Issue gathers a very rich and varied collection of papers along those principles. It clearly shows the value of OR and the many exciting research problems in this important area of humanitarian operations.
Dolinskaya, Irina, Maria Besiou and Sara Guerrero-Garcia (2018): Humanitarian medical supply chain in disaster response, Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 8 (2): 199-226.
Salem, Mojtaba, Niels Van Quaquebeke and Maria Besiou (2018): How field office leaders drive learning and creativity in humanitarian aid: Exploring the role of boundary-spanning leadership for expatriate and local aid worker collaboration, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39 (5): 594-611.
Abstract: Many humanitarian aid workers receive training prior to being dispatched into the field, but they often encounter challenges that require additional learning and creativity. Consequently, aid organizations formally support collaboration among the expatriate and local workers in a field office. At best, those aid workers would not only exploit their joint knowledge but also explore novel ways of managing the challenges at hand. Yet differences between expatriate and local groups (e.g., in ethnicity, religion, education, and salary) often thwart intergroup collaboration in field offices and, by extension, any joint learning or creativity. In response to this issue, we study the role of field office leaders—specifically, how their boundary-spanning behavior may inspire collaboration between the two groups and therefore facilitate joint learning and creativity. We propose that a leader's in-group prototypicality additionally catalyzes this process—that is, a leader's behavior has more impact if s/he is seen as representing his/her group. We tested and found support for our hypothesized moderated mediation model in a field sample of 137 aid workers from 59 humanitarian organizations. Thus, our study generally highlights the pivotal role that field office leaders play for crucial outcomes in humanitarian aid operations. Furthermore, we offer concrete steps for field office leaders who want to inspire better collaboration between the expatriate and local aid workers they lead.
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Lewin, Rebecca, Maria Besiou, Jean-Baptiste Lamarche, Stephen Cahill and Sara Guerrero-Garcia (2018): Delivering in a moving world…looking to our supply chains to meet the increasing scale, cost and complexity of humanitarian needs, Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 8 (4): 518-532.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of the humanitarian supply chain (HSC) as the backbone of the humanitarian operations. It further proposes feasible ways to overcome some of the main supply chain challenges identified by practitioners to achieve cost efficient and effective operations. Design/methodology/approach The challenges that the HSC faces and proposed changes to overcome them are gathered from interviews with nearly 40 practitioners. Findings Five critical issues that affect the future of HSCs are identified along with recommendations to address them. Social implications It supports the fulfillment of the agenda for humanity’s five core responsibilities: global leadership to prevent and end conflict, uphold the norms that safeguard humanity, leave no one behind, change people’s lives – from delivering aid to ending need, and invest in humanity. Originality/value The original report was presented at the first World Humanitarian Summit in Istanbul in May 2016.
Kunz, Nathan, Luk N. Van Wassenhove, Maria Besiou, Christophe Hambye and Gyöngyi Kovács (2017): Relevance of humanitarian logistics research: best practices and way forward, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 37 (11): 1585-1599.
Abstract: Purpose This paper is based on a panel discussion at EurOMA 2015. The purpose of this paper is to identify a number of barriers to relevant research in humanitarian logistics. The authors propose a charter of ten rules for conducting relevant humanitarian research. Design/methodology/approach The authors use operations management literature to identify best practices for doing research with practice. The authors compile, condense and interpret opinions expressed by three academics and one practitioner at the panel discussion, and illustrate them through quotes. Findings The increasing volume of papers published in the humanitarian logistics literature has not led to a proportional impact on practice. The authors identify a number of reasons for this, such as poor problem definition, difficult access to data or lack of contextualization. The authors propose a charter of ten rules that have the potential to make humanitarian logistics research more relevant for practice. Practical implications By developing best practices for doing relevant research in humanitarian logistics, this paper enables the academic community and practice to better work together on relevant and impactful research projects. Academic knowledge combined with practice-inspired problems has the potential to generate significant improvements to humanitarian practice. Originality/value This paper is the first to address the problem of relevance of humanitarian logistics research. It is also one of the few papers involving a practitioner to discuss practical relevance of research. Through this unique approach, it is hoped that this paper provides a set of particularly helpful recommendations for researchers studying humanitarian logistics.
Hunter, Mark Lee, Luk N. Van Wassenhove and Maria Besiou (2016): The New Rules For Crisis Management, MIT Sloan Management Review, 57 (4): 71-78.
Abstract: The article focuses on the approach for crisis management rules in mass media industry in the U.S. Topics discussed include downsized of journalists in the U.S. and Great Britain since 2000, deployment of channels such as user forums and social media platforms like Facebook, and action taken by stakeholders to leverage key assets including frontline information, news channels, and ability to determine when and how a crisis ends.
Burkart, Christian, Maria Besiou and Tina Wakolbinger (2016): The funding—Humanitarian supply chain interface, Surveys in Operations Research and Management Science, 21 (2): 31-45.
Abstract: Humanitarian organizations (HOs) supply goods and services to people in need, using funds provided by donors supporting their mission. Funding systems, funds, and their characteristics have a very strong impact on the success of HOs in fulfilling their and donor needs. A wide variety of articles exists on humanitarian supply chain management (HSCM) and on managing and raising donations. However, a limited, yet growing, branch of literature explores topics in the new field of the interface between funding and HSC. This article provides an overview of research in this field and tries to capture how it has been developing. We achieve this overview through structuring the core issues discussed in the literature into a funding—humanitarian supply chain (HSC) interface framework. The framework leads to the identification of research gaps and promising areas for future research. The article raises awareness of the importance of carefully evaluating decisions related to funding systems and provides researchers and practitioners interested in this topic with guidance with respect to the core issues to be considered.
Besiou, Maria and Luk N. Van Wassenhove (2016): Closed-Loop Supply Chains for Photovoltaic Panels: A Case-Based Approach, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 20 (4): 929-937.
Abstract: Photovoltaic (PV) waste is expected to significantly increase. However, legislation on producer responsibility for the collection and recovery of PV panels is limited to the European Union (EU) Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive Recast, which lays down design, collection, and recovery measures. Academic knowledge of closed-loop supply chains (CLSCs) for PV panels is scarce. We analyze the supply chain using multiple cases involving the main stakeholders in the design, production, collection, and recovery of PV panels. Our article answers two research questions: How does the PV supply chain operate, and what are critical factors affecting the reverse supply chain management of used panels? Our research seeks to fill the gap in the CLSC literature on PV panels, as well as to identify barriers and enablers for PV panel design, collection, and recycling.
Besiou, Maria and Luk N. Van Wassenhove (2015): Addressing the Challenge of Modeling for Decision-Making in Socially Responsible Operations, Production and Operations Management, 24 (9): 1390-1401.
Abstract: Companies seek sustainability by combining the quest for profitability with the pursuit of social responsibility. Since socially responsible operations are characterized by the presence of multiple stakeholders with conflicting goals, applying classical optimization models would seem premature; we first need to capture the behavior of the entire system before attempting to optimize sub-systems to ensure that we focus on the ones driving the behavior of interest. Alternative methodologies are required if we are to gain insight into the most important drivers of socially responsible operations in order to apply traditional operations research (OR)/management science (MS) models correctly. This study presents an umbrella approach which combines different methodologies to tackle the complexity, unfamiliar context, and counter-intuitive behavior of socially responsible operations at the overall system level.
Besiou, Maria, Alfonso J. Pedraza-Martinez and Luk N. Van Wassenhove (2014): Vehicle Supply Chains in Humanitarian Operations: Decentralization, Operational Mix, and Earmarked Funding, Production and Operations Management, 23 (11): 1950-1965.
Abstract: The work of international humanitarian organizations (IHOs) frequently involves operating in remote locations, decentralized decision-making, and the simultaneous implementation of development and disaster response programs. A large proportion of this work is funded by “earmarked” donations, since donors often exhibit a preference for the programs they are willing to fund. From extensive research involving qualitative descriptions and quantitative data, and applying system dynamics methodology, we model vehicle supply chains (VSCs) in support of humanitarian field operations. Our efforts encompass the often-overlooked decentralized environment by incorporating the three different VSC structures that IHOs operate, as well as examining the entire mix of development and disaster response programs, and the specific (and virtually unexplored) effects of earmarked funding. Our results suggest that earmarked funding causes a real—and negative—operational impact on humanitarian disaster response programs in a decentralized setting.
Besiou, Maria, Mark Lee Hunter and Luk N. Van Wassenhove (2013): A Web of Watchdogs: Stakeholder Media Networks and Agenda-Setting in Response to Corporate Initiatives, Journal of Business Ethics, 118 (4): 709-729.
Abstract: This article seeks to model the agenda-setting strategies of stakeholders equipped with online and other media in three cases involving protests against multinational corporations (MNCs). Our theoretical objective is to widen agenda-setting theory to a dynamic and nonlinear networked stakeholder context, in which stakeholder-controlled media assume part of the role previously ascribed to mainstream media (MSM). We suggest system dynamics (SD) methodology as a tool to analyse complex stakeholder interactions and the effects of their agendas on other stakeholders. We find that largely similar dynamics of interactions occur among stakeholders in these cases, and that the costs for managements of maintaining their agendas steadily rises. We conclude that the “web of watchdogs” comprises a powerful reason for managers to engage in responsibility negotiations with their stakeholders.
Hunter, Mark Lee, Luk N. Van Wassenhove, Maria Besiou and Mignon van Halderen (2013): The Agenda-setting Power of Stakeholder Media, California Management Review, 56 (1): 24-49.
Abstract: This article considers how “stakeholder media” – media produced and controlled by stakeholders with the purpose of affecting public opinion or opinions of other actors toward issues or organisations – can exert powerful influences on firms by setting the public agenda and framing a company’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in ways desirable for those stakeholders. We observe that research on agenda-setting, which is very largely based on studies of the traditional news media, generally ignores the increasingly powerful reach and impact of media controlled by stakeholders. Hence, based on a case study of BP’s CSR campaign “Beyond Petroleum”, we propose a new model that addresses agenda setting by stakeholder media. The model captures distinct agenda setting as well as framing techniques used by stakeholder media to put pressure on BP’s “Beyond Petroleum” rebranding campaign. We thus aim to advance extant agenda setting concepts, by demonstrating how stakeholder media ultimately exert different and in some ways stronger influence on firms than traditional news media.
Tischer, André, Maria Besiou and Carl-Alexander Graubner (2013): Efficient waste management in construction logistics: a refurbishment case study, Logistics Research.
Abstract: Large-scaled construction projects with their complex logistical processes of transport, handling and storage material to site, on site and from site bear significant environmental impacts. Such impacts include use of land, production of waste and emissions. In this paper, we investigate—by using a case study approach—how a well-planed implemented material management can affect efficiency in construction logistics focusing on logistics of disposal. The motivation behind this research is to examine the ecological and economic impact of construction logistics on waste management on site, when construction logistics is planned and determined in the early planning phase of a refurbishment project. We find that the implementation of a waste management plan can reduce environmental impacts, specifically increasing the efficiency of logistics of disposal by approximately 9 %, but it is associated with higher costs. The findings gained from this single case study research lead to case-study-specific recommendations for practitioners and regulators in the construction logistics area.
Van Wassenhove, Luk N. and Maria Besiou (2013): Complex problems with multiple stakeholders: how to bridge the gap between reality and OR/MS?, Journal of Business Economics, 83 (1): 87-97.
Abstract: The world becomes increasingly complex and problems tend to be broader and multidisciplinary. At the same time, OR/MS research seems to be narrowing down, building even more on analytical models. The flip side is the risk that OR/MS is increasingly diverging from reality and that its dominant paradigm becomes insufficient to guide us in understanding and solving complicated real-world problems. A methodology that allows a broader insight into exploring a complex system’s behaviour is urgently needed to guide OR/MS analytical models. We propose system dynamics as a methodology to link reality with the dominant OR/MS paradigm of narrowly focused and highly analytical models.
O'Connell, Maurice, Stewart Hickey, Maria Besiou, Colin Fitzpatrick and Luk N. Van Wassenhove (2013): Feasibility of Using Radio Frequency Identification to Facilitate Individual Producer Responsibility for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 17 (2): 213-223.
Abstract: Regulatory measures that hold producers accountable for their products at end of life are increasingly common. Some of these measures aim at generating incentives for producers to design products that will be easier and cheaper to recover at the postconsumer stage. However, the allocation of recovery costs to individual producers, which can facilitate realization of the goals of these policies, is hindered by the practical barrier of identification and/or sorting of the products in the waste stream. Technologies such as radio frequency identification (RFID) can be used for brand or model recognition in order to overcome this obstacle. This article assesses the read rate of RFID technology (i.e., the number of successful retrievals of RFID tag data [“reads”] in a given sample of tagged products) and the potential role of RFID tags in the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) at current levels of technical development. We present the results of RFID trials conducted at a civic amenity site in the city of Limerick, Ireland. The experiment was performed for fixed distances up to 2 meters on different material substrates. In the case of white goods (i.e., large household appliances), a 100% read rate was achieved using an RFID handheld reader. High read rates were also achieved for mixed WEEE. For a handheld scan of a steel cage containing mixed WEEE, read rates varied from 50% to 73% depending on the ultrahigh frequency (UHF) metal mount tag employed and the relative positioning of the tags within the cage. These results confirm that from a technical standpoint, RFID can achieve much greater brand or model identification than has been considered feasible up to now, and thus has a role to play in creating a system that allocates recovery costs to individual producers.
Besiou, Maria, Patroklos Georgiadis and Luk N. Van Wassenhove (2012): Official recycling and scavengers: Symbiotic or conflicting?, European Journal of Operational Research, 218 (2): 563-576.
Abstract: Nowadays, especially in developed countries, the traditional collection of end-of-use products by scavengers has been displaced by formal waste recovery systems. However, scavenging still exists, especially in places with collection capacity shortages and/or low living standards. Besides its obvious social implications, the financial and environmental aspects of scavenging are certainly not trivial. Informal recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by scavengers not only constrains profits of the formal system. In their effort to recover the value of end-of-use products, scavengers also pollute the environment if toxic substances leak when WEEE is not properly disposed of. We investigate the impact of scavenging on the operations of the formal recovery system of WEEE, under three regulatory measures, using system dynamics methodology. By using data from a real world closed-loop supply chain that operates in Greece extended numerical experimentation revealed that a legislation incorporating scavengers into the formal waste recovery system (instead of either ignoring or prohibiting their participation) is beneficial for economical, environmental and social sustainability.
Besiou, Maria, Orla Stapleton and Luk N. Van Wassenhove (2011): System dynamics for humanitarian operations, Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 1 (1): 78-103.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the appropriateness of system dynamics (SD) methodology as a tool for humanitarian decision makers to understand the effect of their decisions on humanitarian operations. The authors seek to present the initial stages and preliminary findings of a SD model used to analyze a well‐defined subsystem of humanitarian operations, field vehicle fleet management; then build on this example by identifying an additional area of humanitarian operations for future research using the SD methodology. Design/methodology/approach Case‐based research was combined with SD methodology to examine the appropriateness of this methodology for use in humanitarian operations. Findings Humanitarian operations are characterized by multiple actors, feedback loops, time pressures, resource constraints and uncertainty. The authors find that SD has the capacity to accurately represent the dynamic complexity of humanitarian operations, and is therefore an appropriate tool to study these systems. Research limitations/implications The well-defined issue of field vehicle fleet management in humanitarian organizations is used to illustrate an application of SD for humanitarian operations. Due to the difficulty in obtaining necessary data to build the SD model, this study uses estimations based on over three years of research into fleet management in the humanitarian sector. The authors then present an example of a broader but less well‐defined subsystem in the humanitarian sector that can be analyzed using SD methodology to the benefit of the overall humanitarian relief operation. Practical implications Decision making in humanitarian operations is usually based on intuition and experience which are not always sufficient to fully understand the global impact of these decisions. SD provides humanitarian decision makers with a method to simulate and compare the impact of alternative decisions that would not be possible in real life situations. Social implications This paper examines the appropriateness of SD methodology to help humanitarians improve the effectiveness of their relief and development programs through better‐informed decision making. Originality/value This paper presents one of the first attempts to use SD methodology to build a model for humanitarian operations using a well‐defined subsystem, field vehicle fleet management.
Georgiadis, Patroklos and Maria Besiou (2010): Environmental and economical sustainability of WEEE closed-loop supply chains with recycling: a system dynamics analysis, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 47 (5-8): 475-493.
Abstract: Nowadays, the worldwide production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is consequently increasing, reducing both resources and landfills. In this manuscript, we investigate the significance of the factors that comprise the environmental sustainability strategies (environmental legislation and green image) and the operational features of the closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) (chain's features, products' features and economic parameters), their interactions and the type of their impact on the environmental (availability of natural resources and landfill availability) and economical sustainability of a WEEE CLSC. We use an extension of a System Dynamics-based model of a CLSC with recycling activities introduced by Georgiadis and Besiou [J Clean Prod 16(15):1665–1678, 2008]. The developed model is validated using data from a real-world CLSC of EEE in Greece. Extended numerical investigation provides insights to the managers of the WEEE CLSC and the legislators with regard to the actions which can lead to sustainability.
Georgiadis, Patroklos and Maria Besiou (2009): Environmental strategies for electrical and electronic equipment supply chains: which to choose?, Sustainability, 1 (3): 722-733.
Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment is one of the major world-wide waste streams triggering the emergence of environmental strategies. Environmental regulations, closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) activities and design-for-environment (DfE) practices are environmental friendly strategies being implemented by governments and industry. In this paper, we apply a System Dynamics model to a CLSC of electrical and electronic equipment in Greece. Extensive numerical investigation provides insights regarding the impact of different legislative measures, CLSC activities and DfE practices on the environmental (availability of natural resources and landfills) and economic sustainability.
Georgiadis, Patroklos and Maria Besiou (2008): Sustainability in electrical and electronic equipment closed-loop supply chains: a system dynamics approach, Journal of Cleaner Production, 16 (15): 1665-1678.
Patroklos, Georgiadis, Lakovou Eleftherios, Vlachos Dimitrios and Maria Besiou (2006): A system dynamics modeling approach of ecological motivation in sustainable supply chains, WSEAS Transactions on Systems, 5 (1): 48-55.
Abstract: Sustainable supply chains have emerged as an area of growing attention due to the development of "Ecological motivation" and Sustainable development, along with technological and economical trends. Ecological motivation is a strategic issue of increased importance for the profitability of sustainable supply chains due to companies' interest in their "green image" and environmental legislation. Ecological motivation manifests through a variety of issues that are investigated in this manuscript, including the take-back obligations and lower limits of recycling imposed by the environmental legislation, green consumerism and design for environment (DfE). In this work we examine the impact of the ecological motivation and sustainable development on the long term behavior of a simple system that can be encountered on a variety of real-world cases, in particular that of a single producer and a single product chain with recycling activities. The developed methodological approach captures these issues comprehensively through a dynamic simulation model based on the principles of the system dynamics (SD) theory. The proposed dynamic model can be used as a simulation tool for the conduct of various "what-if" analyses, by evaluating the impact of various regulatory measures and green consumerism on system performance. Finally, we discuss the potential value of the proposed modeling procedure in managing real world cases.
Georgiadis, Patroklos, Maria Besiou, Dimitrios Vlachos and Eleftherios Iakovou (2005): A Comprehensive Methodological Framework for Sustainable Supply Chains, IASME Transactions, 2 (4): 569-574.
Journal Articles (Professional)
Besiou, Maria, André Tischer and Carl-Alexander Graubner (2014): Nachhaltigkeit am Bau, Logistik heute, 3.
Hunter, Mark Lee, Luk N. Van Wassenhove and Maria Besiou (2017): Power is Everywhere: How Stakeholder-Driven Media Build the Future of Watchdog News, The Stakeholder Media Project: Paris, France, 979 10 958 70 036.
Balaisyte, Jurgita, Maria Besiou and Luk N. Van Wassenhove (In press): Cross-sector partnerships for sustainable supply chains, in: Bouchery, Yann, Charles J. Corbett, Jan C. Fransoo and Tarkan Tan (ed.): Sustainable Supply Chains: A Research-Based Textbook on Operations and Strategy, Springer International Publishing: Cham, Switzerland, 485-505.
Abstract: Sustainability issues are becoming more complex. Private companies respond to the new challenges with the pursuit of corporate social responsibility. One way to contribute to society and to deal with the increased pressure is by engaging in cross-sector partnerships with nonprofit organizations. But under which conditions are these partnerships successful? Using a multiple case research design we study the challenges in the process of creating sustainable value for supply chains through cross-sector partnerships between pharmaceutical companies and nonprofit organizations operating in developing countries. The chapter answers two research questions: (1) What are the challenges affecting the success of cross-sector partnerships to create sustainable value? (2) How can these challenges be addressed by Operations Management (OM)/Supply Chain Management (SCM) research?
Hunter, Mark Lee, Luk N. Van Wassenhove and Maria Besiou (2014): Lawnsite.com vs dupont (C): After the crisis, INSEAD: Fontainebleau.
Abstract: This is part of a case series.The introduction of a new class of persistent herbicides is anticipated by DuPont as a game-changer for the firm and its customers. Instead, the product creates unforeseen damage to vegetation. The mobilisation of the customer base soon extends to the general public and regulators, leading to withdrawal of the product and ultimately the sale of the DuPont business unit concerned. Participants will learn that in the age of stakeholder-controlled media, the classic means of customer engagement are inadequate. Power has shifted from the firm to the customer, particularly in a B2B setting. The vehicle for this shift, the online forum, remains poorly understood and utilised by most firms. Participants will see that customer power can destroy entire business units. Learning objectives: 1. Participants will learn that in the age of stakeholder-controlled media, the classic means of customer engagement are inadequate. 2. Power has shifted from the firm to the customer, particularly in a B2B setting. 3. The vehicle for this shift, the online forum, remains poorly understood and utilised by most firms. Participants will see that customer power can destroy entire business units. https://www.thecasecentre.org/main/products/view?id=122565
Hunter, Mark Lee, Luk N. Van Wassenhove and Maria Besiou (2014): Lawnsite.com vs dupont (B): The crisis widens, INSEAD: Fontainebleau.
Abstract: This is part of a case series. The introduction of a new class of persistent herbicides is anticipated by DuPont as a game-changer for the firm and its customers. Instead, the product creates unforeseen damage to vegetation. The mobilisation of the customer base soon extends to the general public and regulators, leading to withdrawal of the product and ultimately the sale of the DuPont business unit concerned. Participants will learn that in the age of stakeholder-controlled media, the classic means of customer engagement are inadequate. Power has shifted from the firm to the customer, particularly in a B2B setting. The vehicle for this shift, the online forum, remains poorly understood and utilised by most firms. Participants will see that customer power can destroy entire business units. Learning objectives: 1. Participants will learn that in the age of stakeholder-controlled media, the classic means of customer engagement are inadequate. 2. Power has shifted from the firm to the customer, particularly in a B2B setting. 3. The vehicle for this shift, the online forum, remains poorly understood and utilised by most firms. Participants will see that customer power can destroy entire business units. https://www.thecasecentre.org/main/products/view?id=122564
Hunter, Mark Lee, Luk N. Van Wassenhove and Maria Besiou (2014): Lawnsite.com vs dupont (A): the game changer, INSEAD: Fontainebleau.
Abstract: This case is part of a case series. The introduction of a new class of persistent herbicides is anticipated by DuPont as a game-changer for the firm and its customers. Instead, the product creates unforeseen damage to vegetation. The mobilisation of the customer base soon extends to the general public and regulators, leading to withdrawal of the product and ultimately the sale of the DuPont business unit concerned. Participants will learn that in the age of stakeholder-controlled media, the classic means of customer engagement are inadequate. Power has shifted from the firm to the customer, particularly in a B2B setting. The vehicle for this shift, the online forum, remains poorly understood and utilised by most firms. Participants will see that customer power can destroy entire business units. Learning objectives: 1. Participants will learn that in the age of stakeholder-controlled media, the classic means of customer engagement are inadequate. 2. Power has shifted from the firm to the customer, particularly in a B2B setting. 3. The vehicle for this shift, the online forum, remains poorly understood and utilised by most firms. Participants will see that customer power can destroy entire business units. https://www.thecasecentre.org/main/products/view?id=122563
Hunter, Mark Lee, Luk N. Van Wassenhove and Maria Besiou (2011): BP PLC (B): The Long Tail of 'Beyond Petroleum', INSEAD: Fontainebleau.
Abstract: This is part of a case series. The announcement that BP PLC, the world's third-largest oil firm, was going ‘beyond petroleum’ generated scepticism from news media, indifference from investors, and outraged opposition from environmentalists in 2000. When BP's Alaska employees raised safety and environmental concerns in 2002, stakeholder groups, news media and regulators were drawn into the conflict. Learning objectives: 1. This case demonstrates how the dynamics of stakeholder activism and influence have changed as a consequence of the emergence of stakeholder-controlled media. 2. These follow different rules and objectives from conventional news media, and their influence on management strategies may be decisive. 3. Participants should gain awareness of the operating principles of these new forces, and how they impact corporate social responsibility in particular. https://www.thecasecentre.org/main/products/view?id=104706
Van Wassenhove, Luk N., Jurgita Balaisyte and Maria Besiou (2011): TIBOTEC: Partnership with HIV/AIDS alliance in Uganda: Working together for development, INSEAD: Fontainebleau.
Abstract: This case examines how the European pharmaceutical company Tibotec, part of J&J, engaged in a partnership with the International HIV / AIDS Alliance, an established NGO in Uganda. The case presents the learning that arises from this partnership, both for the private company and for the NGO. Learning objectives: 1. To provide an illustration of a European company looking to develop partnerships on the African continent. 2. The challenges involved when a private company exposes itself to the uncertain NGO world. 3. What both parties learn from the experience. https://www.thecasecentre.org/main/products/view?id=100800
Hunter, Mark Lee, Luk N. Van Wassenhove and Maria Besiou (2011): BP PLC (A): Going 'Beyond Petroleum'?, INSEAD: Fontainebleau.
Abstract: This is part of a case series. The announcement that BP PLC, the world's third-largest oil firm, was going 'beyond petroleum' generated scepticism from news media, indifference from investors, and outraged opposition from environmentalists in 2000. When BP's Alaska employees raised safety and environmental concerns in 2002, stakeholder groups, news media and regulators were drawn into the conflict. Learning Objective: 1. This case demonstrates how the dynamics of stakeholder activism and influence have changed as a consequence of the emergence of stakeholder-controlled media. 2. These follow different rules and objectives from conventional news media, and their influence on management strategies may be decisive. 3. Participants should gain awareness of the operating principles of these new forces, and how they impact corporate social responsibility in particular. http://www.thecasecentre.org/main/products/view?id=104705