Journal Articles (Peer-Reviewed)
Van Quaquebeke, Niels, Jan U. Becker, Niko Goretzki and Christian Barrot (In press): Perceived ethical leadership affects customer purchasing intentions beyond ethical marketing in advertising due to moral identity self-congruence concerns, Journal of Business Ethics.
Abstract: Ethical leadership has so far mainly been featured in the organizational behavior domain and, as such, treated as an intra-organizational phenomenon. The present study seeks to highlight the relevance of ethical leadership for extra-organizational phenomena by combining the organizational behavior perspective on ethical leadership with a classical marketing approach. In particular, we demonstrate that customers may use perceived ethical leadership cues as additional reference points when forming purchasing intentions. In two experimental studies (N = 601 and N = 336), we find that ethical leadership positively affects purchasing intentions because of customers’ concerns for moral self-congruence. We show this by means of both mediation and moderation analyses. Interestingly, the effect of perceived ethical leadership on purchasing intentions holds over and above the ethical advertising claims (e.g., cause-related marketing) that are commonly used in marketing. We conclude by discussing the possible ramifications of ethical leadership beyond its effects on immediate employees.
Meyners, Jannik, Christian Barrot, Jan U. Becker and Anand Bodapati (2017): Reward-scrounging in customer referral programs, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 34 (2): 382-398.
Abstract: Rewarding existing customers for the recruitment of new ones has become an increasingly popular acquisition tool for companies. However, when a company rewards the recruitment of a new customer, managers are unaware of whether the rewarded referral was actually necessary or whether “reward-scrounging” has occurred because the referral receiver would have converted anyway. As a consequence, companies risk overestimating the effectiveness of their referral programs, which is why gaining insights into how and when reward-scrounging occurs is crucial. In this study, we employ a large data set from the telecommunications industry to analyze the drivers of reward-scrounging. The results indicate that reward-scrounging reduces the effectiveness of referral reward programs over time and that its likelihood depends on both the referral sender's network position and the company's marketing activities. The findings are used to develop managerial means to alleviate the negative effects of reward-scrounging.
Meyners, Jannik, Christian Barrot, Jan U. Becker and Jakob Goldenberg (2017): The Role of Mere Closeness: How Geographic Proximity Affects Social Influence, Journal of Marketing, 81 (5): 49-66.
Abstract: Geographic proximity has become increasingly relevant due to the growing number of marketing services that use consumers’ geographic locations, thus increasing the importance of gaining insights from this information. In five studies (both field and experimental), the authors analyze the effect of geographic proximity on social influence and demonstrate that not only social proximity but also perceived homophily can trigger social influence. They find that this effect holds under alternative representations of geographic distance and is confirmed for a range of different services and even for physical goods. Furthermore, the authors show that geographic proximity has a relative effect because the social influence of a closer sender is stronger than that of a more distant sender, regardless of the absolute distances. They present managerially relevant conditions under which the influence of geographic proximity not only is comparable to other types of information such as age or gender but also provides sufficient informational value for customers to offset differences among alternatives (e.g., due to higher prices) in trade-off decisions.
Maecker, Olaf, Christian Barrot and Jan U. Becker (2016): The effect of social media interactions on customer relationship management, Business Research, 9 (1): 133-155.
Abstract: In recent years, social media have become a popular channel through which customers and companies can interact. However, companies struggle to assess whether their investments in establishing and maintaining brand pages in social media actually meet their high expectations with respect to developing and retaining customers. Based on three empirical studies, the authors explore the role of interactions through corporate social media channels, such as Facebook brand pages, in customer relationship management. The results indicate that social media interactions indeed ease the upselling efforts and reduce the risk of churn. These positive effects offset the observed increases with regard to the number of service requests and the higher overall service cost. Thus, we ultimately find customers who interact with the brand on social media to be more profitable.
Barrot, Christian, Jan U. Becker, Michel Clement and Dominik Papies (2015): Price Elasticities for Hardcover and Paperback Fiction Books, Schmalenbach Business Review, 67 (1): 73-91.
Abstract: Book pricing is problematic for two main reasons. First, because legal restrictions make pricing decisions irreversible. Second, because publishers must set prices for many books every year. Therefore, a sound knowledge of consumer reaction to price is essential for good pricing decisions. Our research examines consumer reactions to prices, provides price elasticities based on a large sample of fiction books, and creates a comprehensive set of quality measures and control variables. Our results show that once price endogeneity is considered, consumers are price elastic. Moreover, we find that the price elasticity for hardcover books is substantially smaller than for paperbacks.
Armelini, Guillermo, Christian Barrot and Jan U. Becker (2015): Referral programs, customer value, and the relevance of dyadic characteristics, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 32 (4): 449-452.
Abstract: Referral programs have become a popular tool to use the customer base for new customer acquisition. We replicate the work of Schmitt et al. (2011) who find that referred customers are more loyal and valuable than customers acquired through other channels. While our results confirm that rewarded referrals indeed reduce the risk of customer churn, we do not find that referred customers are necessarily more valuable. Analysis of the relationship between senders and receivers of referrals demonstrates that demographic similarity drives the referred customer value.
Fandrich, Thomas, Christian Barrot and Jan U. Becker (2014): Deckungsbeitragsorientierte Steuerung von Targeting-Kampagnen, Schmalenbachs Zeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung, 66 (11): 602-625.
Barrot, Christian, Jan U. Becker and Jannik Meyners (2013): Impact of service pricing on referral behavior, European Journal of Marketing, 47 (7): 1052-1066.
Barrot, Christian, Jan Kuhlmann and Andrea Popa (2013): Influence of Personal Communication Networks on Innovation Adoption – Using Multi-Agent-Simulations to Optimize the Roll-Out of an Innovative Medical Device, International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 10 (5): 1-19.
Schlereth, Christian, Christian Barrot, Bernd Skiera and Carsten Takac (2013): Optimal Product-Sampling Strategies in Social Networks: How Many and Whom to Target?, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 18 (1): 45-72.
Hinz, Oliver, Bernd Skiera, Christian Barrot and Jan U. Becker (2011): Seeding strategies for viral marketing: An empirical comparison, Journal of Marketing, 75 (6): 55-71.
Abstract: Seeding strategies have strong influences on the success of viral marketing campaigns, but previous studies using computer simulations and analytical models have produced conflicting recommendations about the optimal seeding strategy. This study compares four seeding strategies in two complementary small-scale field experiments, as well as in one real-life viral marketing campaign involving more than 200,000 customers of a mobile phone service provider. The empirical results show that the best seeding strategies can be up to eight times more successful than other seeding strategies. Seeding to well-connected people is the most successful approach because these attractive seeding points are more likely to participate in viral marketing campaigns. This finding contradicts a common assumption in other studies. Well-connected people also actively use their greater reach but do not have more influence on their peers than do less well-connected people.
Barrot, Christian, Jan U. Becker and Michel Clement (2011): Entrepreneurial Marketing in Online-Netzwerken, Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft, 81 (6): 5-25.
Abstract: Online-Netzwerke (z. B. Xing oder LinkedIn) werden zunehmend aus geschäftlichen Motiven genutzt, mitunter zur gezielten „Vermarktung“ der eigenen Person. So versuchen Führungskräfte und Entrepreneure mit gezielten Informationen in Online-Business-Netzwerken ein Markenimage aufzubauen und nutzen ihr Profil als Marketing-Instrument, um Geschäftskontakte zu managen. Auf der theoretischen Basis des Customer-based-brand-equity-Modells nach Keller (1993) wird das Nutzungsverhalten von Entrepreneuren in geschäftlichen Online-Netzwerken untersucht. Auf der Grundlage eines großzahligen repräsentativen Samples von Mitgliedern einer führenden kommerziellen Online-Plattform untersuchen wir empirisch, inwiefern Entrepreneure erfolgreich in Online-Netzwerken agieren und ob sich ihre Strategien von denen anderer Nutzer unterscheiden. Mit Hilfe von Seemingly-Unrelated-Regression-Schätzungen werden die Treiber der Seitenaufrufe bzw. der bestätigten Kontakte von Entrepreneuren ermittelt. Entrepreneure konzentrieren sich auf die Präsentation ihrer Nutzungsintention und Kompetenzen und sind wesentlich aktiver in der Community. Als zentrale Erfolgstreiber werden Gruppenmoderationen und Event-Teilnahmen identifiziert.
Barrot, Christian, Sönke Albers, Bernd Skiera and Björn Schäfers (2010): Vickrey vs. ebay: Why second-price sealed-bid auctions lead to more realistic price-demand functions, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 14 (4): 7-38.
Abstract: Knowledge of consumers' willingness-to-pay (WTP) is critical for marketing managers when designing optimal pricing policies. The large-scale applicability, reliability, and validity of Vickrey auctions as an incentive-compatible method for eliciting WTP in a real-world setting were tested empirically. The results of 6,548 sealed bids in 28 auctions of costly durables on a popular auction Web site show that regular on-line shoppers have little problem understanding and applying the Vickrey auction bidding strategy. As a result, Vickrey auctions can easily produce a reliable and valid distribution of WTP based on several thousand consumers. A comparison of Vickrey auctions with the more commonly used English or eBay auctions shows, both conceptually and empirically, that the latter formats do not fully reflect the complete range of potential customers' WTP and, therefore, lead to systematic overestimation of price-demand functions. In contrast, WTP information elicited through Vickrey auctions is undistorted by strategic behavior such as bid-sniping and incorporates the full range of WTP information, suggesting that it is better suited for estimating realistic price-demand functions for market research purposes.