Prof. Dr.
Niels Van Quaquebeke


Professor of Leadership and Organizational Behavior

Head of Management Department


Journal Articles (Peer-Reviewed)

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-017-3625-0 

Abstract: Despite the proliferation of research on ethical leadership, there remains a limited understanding of how specifically the assumingly moral component of this leadership style affects employee behavior. Taking an identity perspective, we integrate the ethical leadership literature with research on the dynamics of the moral self-concept to posit that ethical leadership will foster a sense of moral identity among employees, which then inspires followers to adopt more ethical actions, such as increased organization citizenship behavior (OCB). We further argue that these identity effects should be more pronounced when leaders are perceived to be group prototypical, as their actions then speak louder to followers’ sense of identity. Two studies—a scenario experiment with 138 participants and a field study with 225 employees—provided support for our hypothesized moderated mediation model. Perceived ethical leadership positively affected OCB via followers’ moral identity but only under conditions of high perceived leader group prototypicality. We discuss how the identity pathway of ethical leadership can facilitate novel theorizing about moral transference. Our findings also suggest that, when hiring external ethical leaders or training internal managers, practitioners are well advised to consider that these individuals may only be effective in morally transforming followers when they are perceived as prototypical for the group.

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Open reference in new window "An Identity Perspective on Ethical Leadership to Explain Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Interplay of Follower Moral Identity and Leader Group Prototypicality"

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-018-4055-3 

Abstract: In the aftermath of various corporate scandals, management research and practice have taken great interest in ethical leadership. Ethical leadership is referred to as “normatively appropriate conduct” (Brown et al. in Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 97(2):117–134, 2005), but the prescriptive norms that actually underlie this understanding constitute an open question. We address this research gap by turning to relational models theory (Fiske in Structures of social life: the four elementary forms of human relations, Free Press, New York, 1991), which contextualizes four distinct moralities in four distinct interactional norms (i.e., the relational models). We expect that the norms inherent in each model dictate the type of leader relationship that followers deem ethical. Specifically, we hypothesize that, for each norm, followers will perceive leaders as less ethical the more discrepant, i.e., the more incongruent, followers’ ideal relational norm is with the perceived norm that they attribute to their actual leader–follower interaction. We tested the respective incongruence hypothesis in a cross-sectional survey of 101 Dutch employees. Polynomial regression and surface response analyses provide support for the hypothesized incongruence effects in each of the four relational models, suggesting that normatively appropriate conduct should not be limited to caring (i.e., community-oriented) behaviors. Indeed, all four relational models can predict ethical leadership perceptions. We discuss the implications in the context of ethical leadership research and managerial practice. (published online first)

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Open reference in new window "When do followers perceive their leaders as ethical? A relational models perspective to normatively appropriate conduct"

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-017-3577-4 

Abstract: Ethical leadership has so far mainly been featured in the organizational behavior domain and, as such, treated as an intra-organizational phenomenon. The present study seeks to highlight the relevance of ethical leadership for extra-organizational phenomena by combining the organizational behavior perspective on ethical leadership with a classical marketing approach. In particular, we demonstrate that customers may use perceived ethical leadership cues as additional reference points when forming purchasing intentions. In two experimental studies (N = 601 and N = 336), we find that ethical leadership positively affects purchasing intentions because of customers’ concerns for moral self-congruence. We show this by means of both mediation and moderation analyses. Interestingly, the effect of perceived ethical leadership on purchasing intentions holds over and above the ethical advertising claims (e.g., cause-related marketing) that are commonly used in marketing. We conclude by discussing the possible ramifications of ethical leadership beyond its effects on immediate employees.

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Open reference in new window "Perceived ethical leadership affects customer purchasing intentions beyond ethical marketing in advertising due to moral identity self-congruence concerns"

DOI: 10.1177/0018726718754992 

Abstract: We investigate how respectful leadership can help overcome the challenges for follower performance that female leaders face when working (especially with male) followers. Firstly, based on role congruity theory (Eagly & Karau, 2002), we illustrate the biases faced by female leaders. Secondly, based on research on gender (dis-)similarity, we propose that these biases should be particularly pronounced when working with a male follower. Finally, we propose that respectful leadership is most conducive to performance in female leader/male follower dyads compared to all other gender configurations. A multi-source field study (N = 214) provides partial support for our hypothesis. While our hypothesized effect was confirmed, respectful leadership seems to be generally effective for female leaders irrespective of follower gender, thus lending greater support in this context to the arguments of role congruity rather than gender dissimilarity.

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Open reference in new window "Respectful leadership: Reducing performance challenges posed by leader role incongruence and gender dissimilarity"

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200062 

Abstract: The current psychology literature defines flourishing as leading an authentic life that directs one towards the highest levels of both feeling good and functioning well. Numerous studies show that flourishing relates to a wide array of advantageous personal outcomes. However, the same literature says very little about the social outcomes of flourishing, even though an individual’s pursuit of well-being does not happen in isolation of others. With the present research, we seek to address this void. Specifically, we argue that flourishing, in its psychological conceptualization, does not provide strong moral guidance. As such, flourishing is amoral when it comes to social outcomes such as prosocial behaviors. Drawing on social learning theory, we argue that flourishers’ prosociality is at least somewhat contingent on the moral guidance of their society. To assess this, we tested society’s corruption level as a moderator in the relation between flourishing and prosocial behavior. To that end, we conducted two studies using data from the European Social Survey (ESS), which were collected in 2006 (N1 = 50,504) from 23 countries and in 2012 (N2 = 56,835) from 29 countries. We generally find that corruption at the national level moderates the relation between flourishing and prosocial behaviors (i.e., helping close/distant others, charitable activities). Overall, our study suggests that moral guidance should factor into discussions about flourishing.

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Open reference in new window "Flourishing and prosocial behaviors: A multilevel investigation of national corruption level as a moderator"

DOI: 10.1037/apl0000281 

Abstract: The extant social undermining literature suggests that employees envy and, consequently, undermine coworkers when they feel that these coworkers are better off and thus pose a threat to their own current status. With the present research, we draw on the sociofunctional approach to emotions to propose that an anticipated future status threat can similarly incline employees to feel envy toward, and subsequently undermine, their coworkers. We argue that employees pay special attention to coworkers' past development in relation to their own, because faster-rising coworkers may pose a future status threat even if they are still performing worse in absolute terms in the present. With a set of two behavioral experiments (N = 90 and N = 168), we establish that participants react to faster-rising coworkers with social undermining behavior when the climate is competitive (vs. less competitive). We extended these results with a scenario experiment (N = 376) showing that, in these situations, participants extrapolate lower future status than said coworker and thus respond with envy and undermining behavior. A two-wave field study (N = 252) replicated the complete moderated serial mediation model. Our findings help to explain why employees sometimes undermine others who present no immediate threat to their status. As such, we extend theorizing on social undermining and social comparison.

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Open reference in new window "Keeping (future) rivals down: Temporal social comparison predicts coworker social undermining via future status threat and envy"

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-016-3097-7 

Abstract: Research on value congruence rests on the assumption that values denote desirable behaviors and ideals that employees and organizations strive to approach. In the present study, we develop and test the argument that a more complete understanding of value congruence can be achieved by considering a second type of congruence based on employees’ and organizations’ counter-ideal values (i.e., what both seek to avoid). We examined this proposition in a time-lagged study of 672 employees from various occupational and organizational backgrounds. We used difference scores as well as polynomial regression and response surface analyses to test our hypotheses. Consistent with our hypotheses, results reveal that counter-ideal value congruence has unique relations to employees’ trust in the organization that go beyond the effects of ideal value congruence. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of this expanded perspective on value congruence.

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Open reference in new window "Does it take more than ideals? How counter-ideal value congruence shapes employees' trust in the organization"

DOI: 10.1002/job.2246 

Abstract: Many humanitarian aid workers receive training prior to being dispatched into the field, but they often encounter challenges that require additional learning and creativity. Consequently, aid organizations formally support collaboration among the expatriate and local workers in a field office. At best, those aid workers would not only exploit their joint knowledge but also explore novel ways of managing the challenges at hand. Yet differences between expatriate and local groups (e.g., in ethnicity, religion, education, and salary) often thwart intergroup collaboration in field offices and, by extension, any joint learning or creativity. In response to this issue, we study the role of field office leaders—specifically, how their boundary-spanning behavior may inspire collaboration between the two groups and therefore facilitate joint learning and creativity. We propose that a leader's in-group prototypicality additionally catalyzes this process—that is, a leader's behavior has more impact if s/he is seen as representing his/her group. We tested and found support for our hypothesized moderated mediation model in a field sample of 137 aid workers from 59 humanitarian organizations. Thus, our study generally highlights the pivotal role that field office leaders play for crucial outcomes in humanitarian aid operations. Furthermore, we offer concrete steps for field office leaders who want to inspire better collaboration between the expatriate and local aid workers they lead.

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Open reference in new window "How field office leaders drive learning and creativity in humanitarian aid: Exploring the role of boundary-spanning leadership for expatriate and local aid worker collaboration"

DOI: 10.1177/1094428117718627 

Abstract: While many disciplines embrace the possibilities that Big Data present for advancing scholarship and practice, organizational and management research has yet to realize Big Data’s potential. In an effort to chart this newfound territory, we briefly describe the principal drivers and key characteristics of Big Data. We then review a broad range of opportunities and risks that are related to the Big Data paradigm, the data itself, and the associated analytical methods. For each, we provide research ideas and recommendations on how to embrace the potentials or address the concerns. Our assessment shows that Big Data, as a paradigm, can be a double- edged sword, capable of significantly advancing our field but also causing backlash if not utilized properly. Our review seeks to inform individual research practices as well as a broader policy agenda in order to advance organizational and management research as a scientifically rigorous and professionally relevant field.

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Open reference in new window "The Double-Edged Sword of Big Data in organizational and management research: A Review of Opportunities and Risks"

DOI: 10.5465/amr.2014.0537 

Abstract: Practitioners repeatedly note that the everyday behavior of asking followers open questions and attentively listening to their responses is a powerful leadership technique. Yet, despite such popularity, these practices are currently under-theorized. Addressing this gap, we formally define the behavioral configuration of asking open questions combined with attentive listening as “Respectful Inquiry”, and then draw on Self-Determination Theory to provide a motivational account of its antecedents, consequences, and moderators within a leader-follower relationship. Specifically, we argue that Respectful Inquiry principally satisfies followers' basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. Against this background, we highlight ironic contexts where Respectful Inquiry is likely to be especially rare, but would also be especially valuable. These ironic contexts include situations where interpersonal power difference, time pressure, physical distance, cognitive load, follower dissatisfaction, or organizational control focus are high. We additionally outline how the effect of Respectful Inquiry behaviors critically hinges upon the interaction history a follower has with a leader. More generally, we make the suggestion that the leadership field would benefit from complementing its traditional focus on “gestalt” leadership styles with research on concrete and narrow communicative behaviors, such as Respectful Inquiry.

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Open reference in new window "Respectful inquiry: A motivational account of leading through asking questions and listening"

DOI: 10.1002/hrm.21876 

Abstract: Organizations often pay greater salaries to higher-ranking executives compared to lower-ranking executives. While this method can be useful for retaining those at the organization’s apex, it may also incline executives at the bottom of the pay pyramid to see themselves at a disadvantage and thus exit the firm. Naturally, organizations often want to retain some of their lower-paid, but highly valuable executives; the question, then, is how organizations can reduce the turnover of lower-ranking executives. By integrating social with temporal comparison theory, we argue that, when executives earn relatively less than their peers, more pay growth (i.e., individual pay increases over time) leads to less turnover. By the same token, we also argue that pay growth is unrelated to the turnover of executives who already earn substantially more than their peers. The results of our analysis, which covered almost 20 years of objective data on a large sample of U.S. top executives, provide support for our theory.

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Open reference in new window "Worse than others but better than before: Integrating social and temporal comparison perspectives to explain executive turnover via pay standing and pay growth"

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-03626-8 

Abstract: Metacognitive Training for Depression (D-MCT), a low-threshold group intervention, has been shown to improve depressive symptoms. It aims at the reduction of depression by changing dysfunctional cognitive as well as metacognitive beliefs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the mechanisms of change in D-MCT are cognitive (and thus primarily concern the content of cognition) or metacognitive in nature. Eighty-four outpatients with depression were included in a randomized controlled trial comparing D-MCT to an active control intervention. Level of depression, dysfunctional cognitive beliefs (DAS), and metacognitive beliefs (MCQ subscales: Positive Beliefs, Negative Beliefs, Need for Control) were assessed before (t0) and after treatment (t1). Severity of depression was also assessed 6 months later (t2). Linear regression analyses were used to determine whether change in depression from t0 to t2 was mediated by change in cognitive vs. metacognitive beliefs from t0 to t1. D-MCT’s effect on change in depression was mediated by a decrease in dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs, particularly ‘need for control’. Our findings underline that one of the key mechanisms of improvement in D-MCT is the change in metacognitive beliefs. The current study provides further support for the importance of metacognition in the treatment of depression.

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Open reference in new window "Cognitive and Metacognitive Mechanisms of Change in Metacognitive Training for Depression"

DOI: 10.1111/pops.12311 

Abstract: The present study investigates the consequences of respectful versus disrespectful communication in political debates on voters’ social judgments and voting decisions. Reconciling previously mixed results, we argue that the consequences of disrespect vary with the judgment dimension (communion vs. agency) and voters’ moral identity. An initial study (N = 197) finds that a political candidate's disrespect towards his or her opponent affects voting decision through voting intention. A second study (N = 327) shows that disrespect influences voting intention through communion but not through agency ratings. Qualifying the previous finding, a third study (N = 329) shows that both communion and agency judgments act as mediators, but in different ways depending on the level of moral identity. Overall, communion judgments played a more prominent part in explaining the consequences of disrespectful communication. Our findings thus present a nuanced picture of respect and disrespect in political communication and shed light on their ramifications.

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Open reference in new window "Consequences of Politicians’ Disrespectful Communication Depend on Social Judgment Dimensions and Voters’ Moral Identity"

DOI: 10.1111/jasp.12458 

Abstract: We propose that one politician's disrespectful behavior can spill over to voters' generalized judgments of politicians and thereby affect trust in the political system. We delineate the spillover effect along the basic dimensions of social judgment, communion, and agency. Moreover, we argue that any spillover effect is contingent on the focal politicians' category prototypicality, that is, their representativeness of politicians as such. Conducting an experiment (N = 392) and a field study (N = 273), we found that politicians' respect only affected trust through generalized communion ratings. This spillover only occurred if the observed politician was perceived as prototypical. Our findings provide new insights on when and how individual politicians may be able to undermine voters' trust in the political system.

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Open reference in new window "When and why politicians’ disrespect affects voters’ trust in the political system: The role of social judgments and category prototypicality"

DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2017.01.001 

Abstract: Charismatic leaders have consistently been shown to affect followers’ performance, motivation, and satisfaction. Yet, what precisely constitutes charisma still remains somewhat enigmatic. So far, research has mainly focused on leader traits, leader behaviors, or the leader follower- relationship, and the subsequent consequences of each on followers’ self-concepts. All of these approaches share the notion that leader charisma depends on an explicit interaction between leader and follower. With the present review paper, we extend extant theorizing by arguing that charisma is additionally informed by embodied signals that flow directly from either the leader or the immediate environment. We introduce the embodiment perspective on human perception and describe its utility for theoretically understanding the charismatic effect. Correspondingly, we review studies that show which concrete embodied cues can support the charismatic effect. Finally, we discuss the variety of new theoretical and practical implications that arise from this research and how they can complement existing approaches to charismatic leadership.

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Open reference in new window "The aura of charisma: A review on the embodiment perspective as signaling"

DOI: 10.5964/jspp.v5i1.633 

Abstract: In public debates, political candidates often attack their opponents disrespectfully. Research revealed mixed effects of such behavior on voters’ candidate judgments. In order to understand these results, we argue that it is necessary to consider onlookers’ general attitude towards disrespect in politics. Across an experimental design (N = 229) and a field study (N = 199), we found that voters who consider disrespect a “necessary evil” in the political arena judged disrespectful politicians as more communal and more agentic. Furthermore, they displayed a higher intention to vote as well as actually voted more in favor of disrespectful candidates compared to voters who disapproved of disrespect in politics. The results show that the success of a disrespectful communication strategy substantively depends on the audience.

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Open reference in new window "Some like it hot: How voters’ attitude towards disrespect in politics affects their judgments of candidates"

DOI: 10.1027/1866-5888/a000181 

Abstract: Many organizations use Pay-for-Performance (PfP) programs in order to fuel employee motivation and performance. In the present article, we argue that PfP may also increase employees’ interpersonal deviance (i.e., active harming behavior towards co- workers) because it might induce social comparison and competition. In order to uncover the underlying process, we further argue that this effect should be particularly pronounced for employees who are high in individual competitiveness, i.e., employees who have a strong desire for interpersonal comparison and aspire to be better than others. A cross-sectional field study (N=250) and two experiments (N=92; N=192) provide support for our interaction hypothesis. We discuss the theoretical implications regarding PfP and competitiveness, and offer suggestions concerning the practical implementation of PfP.

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Open reference in new window "Pay-for-performance and interpersonal deviance: Competitiveness as the match that lights the fire"

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-015-2784-0 

Abstract: To advance current knowledge on ethical decision-making in organizations, we integrate two perspectives that have thus far developed independently: the organizational identification perspective and the ethical climate perspective. We illustrate the interaction between these perspectives in two studies (Study 1, N = 144, US sample; and Study 2, N = 356, UK sample), in which we presented participants with moral business dilemmas. Specifically, we found that organizational identification increased moral decision-making only when the organization’s climate was perceived to be ethical. In addition, we disentangle this effect in Study 2 from participants’ moral identity. We argue that the interactive influence of organizational identification and ethical climate, rather than the independent influence of either of these perspectives, is crucial for understanding moral decision-making in organizations.

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Open reference in new window "When Organizational Identification Elicits Moral Decision-Making: A Matter of the Right Climate"

DOI: 10.1177/0018726716639117 

Abstract: Recent conceptual work suggests that the sense of identity that employees develop vis-vis their organization goes beyond the traditional notion of organizational identification and can also involve conflicting impulses represented by ambivalent identification. In this study, we seek to advance this perspective on identification by proposing and empirically examining important antecedents and consequences. In line with our hypotheses, an experimental study (N = 199 employees) shows that organizational identification and ambivalent identification interactively influence employees’ willingness to engage in organizational citizenship behavior. The effect of organizational identification on organizational citizenship behavior is significantly reduced when employees experience ambivalent identification. A field study involving employees from a broad spectrum of organizations and industries (N = 564) replicated these findings. Moreover, results show that employees’ promotion and prevention focus form differential relationships with organizational identification and ambivalent identification, providing first evidence for a link between employees’ regulatory focus and the dynamics of identification. Implications for the expanded model of organizational identification and the understanding of ambivalence in organizations are discussed.

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Open reference in new window "Mixed feelings, mixed blessing? How ambivalence in organizational identification relates to employees’ regulatory focus and citizenship behaviors."

DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01446 

Abstract: A six-month, time-lagged online survey among 441 employees in diverse industries was conducted to investigate the role paranoia plays as an antecedent and as a consequence of advancement in organizations. The background of the study is the argument that it requires active social sense-making and behavioral adaptability to advance in organizations. The present paper thus explores the extent to which employees’ paranoid cognitions—representative of a heightened albeit suspicious sense-making and behavioral adaptability—link with their advancement in organizations (operationalized as changes in afforded span of control), both as an antecedent and an outcome. Following the strategy to illuminate the process by interaction analysis, both conditions (antecedent and outcome) are examined in interaction with employees’ self-monitoring, which is considered representative of a heightened but healthy sense-making and behavioral adaptability. Results support the expected interference interaction between paranoid cognitions and self-monitoring in that each can to some degree compensate for the other in explaining employees’ organizational advancement. Reversely, changes in span of control also affected paranoid cognitions. In particular, low self-monitors, i.e. those low in adaptive sense-making, reacted with heightened paranoid cognitions when demoted. In effect, the present study is thus the first to empirically support that paranoid cognitions can be a consequence but also a prerequisite for getting ahead in organizations. Practical advice should, however, be suspended until it is better understood whether and under what circumstances paranoia may relate not only to personally getting ahead but also to an increased effectiveness for the benefit of the organization.

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Open reference in new window "Paranoia as an Antecedent and Consequence of Getting Ahead in Organizations: Time-Lagged Effects Between Paranoid Cognitions, Self-Monitoring, and Changes in Span of Control"

DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.08.005 

Abstract: The literature on ethical leadership has focused primarily on the way ethical leaders influence follower moral judgment and behavior. It has overlooked that follower responses to ethical leaders may differ depending on the attention they pay to the moral aspects of leadership. In the present research, we introduce moral attentiveness as an important moderator for the relationship between ethical leadership and unethical employee behavior. In a multisource field study (N = 90), we confirm our hypothesis that morally attentive followers respond with more deviance to unethical leaders. An experimental study (N = 96) replicates the finding. Our paper extends the current leader-focused literature by examining how follower moral attentiveness determines the response of followers to ethical or unethical leadership.

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Open reference in new window "Ethical leadership and follower organizational deviance: The moderating role of follower moral attentiveness"

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-014-2291-8 

Abstract: Interpersonal respect can be differentiated into two kinds: (1) horizontal respect, i.e. treating someone with dignity; and (2) vertical respect, i.e. genuinely honoring someone’s merits. With the present research, we draw on motivation theory to explore their interplay in leadership relations. Specifically, we argue for a moderated mediation hypothesis in that (a) leaders’ horizontal respect for their subordinates fundamentally speaks to subordinates’ self-determination and (b) that the message of respectful leadership is enhanced by the vertical respect subordinates have for their leaders. As a result, subordinates are more satisfied with their jobs, which should also show in a decreased willingness to leave. The proposed model was supported in two survey studies (N = 391 and N = 518) and an experimental scenario study (N = 107)—thus suggesting that perceived leader behavior needs to be complemented by leader standing.

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Open reference in new window "Getting Respect from a Boss You Respect: How Different Types of Respect Interact to Explain Subordinates’ Job Satisfaction as Mediated by Self-Determination"

DOI: 10.1177/0149206313478187 

Abstract: Existing justice theory explains why fair procedures motivate employees to adopt cooperative goals, but it fails to explain how employees strive toward these goals. We study self-regulatory abilities that underlie goal striving, abilities that should thus affect employees’ display of cooperative behavior in response to procedural justice. Building on action control theory, we argue that employees who display effective self-regulatory strategies (action-oriented employees) display relatively strong cooperative behavioral responses to fair procedures. A multisource field study and a laboratory experiment support this prediction. A subsequent experiment addresses the process underlying this effect by explicitly showing that action orientation facilitates attainment of the cooperative goals that people adopt in response to fair procedures, thus facilitating the display of actual cooperative behavior. This goal striving approach better integrates research on the relationship between procedural justice and employee cooperation in the self-regulation and the work motivation literature. It also offers organizations a new perspective on making procedural justice effective in stimulating employee cooperation by suggesting factors that help employees reach their adopted goals.

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Open reference in new window "Willing and Able: Action-State Orientation and the Relation Between Procedural Justice and Employee Cooperation"

DOI: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.02.011 

Abstract: Background and objectives Overconfidence in errors is a well-replicated cognitive bias in psychosis. However, prior studies have sometimes failed to find differences between patients and controls for more difficult tasks. We pursued the hypothesis that overconfidence in errors is exaggerated in participants with a liability to psychosis relative to controls only when they feel competent in the respective topic and/or deem the question easy. Whereas subjective competence likely enhances confidence in those with low psychosis liability as well, we still expected to find more ‘residual’ caution in the latter group. Methods We adopted a psychometric high-risk approach to circumvent the confounding influence of treatment. A total of 2321 individuals from the general population were administered a task modeled after the “Who wants to be a millionaire” quiz. Participants were requested to endorse one out of four response options, graded for confidence, and were asked to provide ratings regarding subjective competence for the knowledge domain as well as the subjective difficulty of each item. Results In line with our assumption, overconfidence in errors was increased overall in participants scoring high on the Paranoia Checklist core paranoia subscale (2 5SD6 above the mean). This pattern of results was particularly prominent for items for which participants considered themselves competent and which they rated as easy. Limitations Results need to be replicated in a clinical sample. Discussion In support of our hypothesis, subjective competence and task difficulty moderate overconfidence in errors in psychosis. Trainings that teach patients the fallibility of human cognition may help reduce delusional ideation.

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Open reference in new window "Subjective competence breeds overconfidence in errors in psychosis. A hubris account of paranoia"

DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01126 

Abstract: Previous research indicated that leader moral identity (MI; i.e., leaders’ self-definition in terms of moral attributes) predicts to what extent followers perceive their leader as ethical (i.e., demonstrating and promoting ethical conduct in the organization). Leadership, however, is a relational process that involves leaders and followers. Building on this understanding, we hypothesized that follower and leader MI (a) interact in predicting whether followers will perceive their leaders as ethical and, as a result, (b) influence followers’ perceptions of leader–follower relationship quality. A dyadic field study (N = 101) shows that leader MI is a stronger predictor of followers’ perceptions of ethical leadership for followers who are high (vs. low) in MI. Perceptions of ethical leadership in turn predict how the quality of the relationship will be perceived. Hence, whether leader MI translates to perceptions of ethical leadership and of better relationship quality depends on the MI of followers.

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Open reference in new window "In the moral eye of the beholder: The interactive effects of leader and follower moral identity on perceptions of ethical leadership and LMX quality"

DOI: 10.5539/jedp.v5n1p74 

Abstract: This study examines the relationship between students’ (N = 334) perceived teacher respect and their performance on a math exam in school settings. The incremental validity of respect on performance beyond that accounted for by intelligence is assessed. Results suggest that respect accounts for significant additional variability in students’ performance above that accounted for by intelligence. Further analyses reveal that the relationship between respect and performance is moderated by immigration. For German students (N = 150), perceived respect accounts for a part of the variability in performance over the variability accounted for by intelligence. For students with an immigrant background (N = 181) this relationship is not significant. Cultural implications of respect in school settings are discussed.

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Open reference in new window "Respected Students Equal Better Students: Investigating the Links between Respect and Performance in Schools"

DOI: 10.1002/mar.20686 

Abstract: Values are an important concept in marketing because they comprise part of peoples’ identity and can thus help marketers separate and target different audiences. Unsurprisingly, places and their marketing initiatives increasingly try to appeal to (potential) residents’ identity by communicating core values. While the notion of value congruence is not novel, most empirical methods in marketing to date only account for the degree rather than the level of congruence. To address this issue, the present article utilizes polynomial regression and response surface methodology (Edwards & Parry, 1993) in the context of place marketing. Accordingly, the first study shows that the perceived congruence of residents’ own values and the values of stereotypical city inhabitants significantly affect residents’ feelings about their own cities (N = 1257), but with different effects for different values and levels of congruence. This finding holds not only for popular target groups such as the “creative class” but also across all groups. The second study (N = 449) shows that city slogans can effectively communicate specific values and that value congruence leads to a more positive evaluation of the city brand. Finally, the article discusses the benefits of differentiating between levels of congruence both in marketing research in general, and place brand management in particular.

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Open reference in new window "Using Polynomial Regression Analysis and Response Surface Methodology to Make a Stronger Case for Value Congruence in Place Marketing"

DOI: 10.1177/1742715013476081 

Abstract: Leader categorization theory proposes that subordinates perceive leaders against the backdrop of a cognitively represented leader prototype. The match between the two ultimately determines how favourably subordinates respond towards leaders. The respective research, however, yields some confusion as to what kind of prototype is exactly used in this process. Are leaders matched against a central tendency leader prototype, i.e. to an average image of leaders in general, or is it subordinates' goal-directed leader prototype, i.e. their image of an ideal leader, that leaders have to live up to? We reanalysed a field study (N = 266) and conducted a second one likewise with employees (N = 271) to contrast the relevance of both prototypes. The analyses reveal that only the match with the ideal leader prototype was predictive of subordinates’ responses towards their leaders. Previous central tendency leader categorization research thus might have pertained to the ideal aspects in the existing leader population.

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Open reference in new window "What do leaders have to live up to? Contrasting the effects of central tendency- versus ideal-based leader prototypes in leader categorization processes"

DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.12.044 

Abstract: Studies revealed that patients with paranoid schizophrenia display overconfidence in errors for memory and social cognition tasks. The present investigation examined whether this pattern holds true for visual perception tasks. Nonclinical participants were recruited via an online panel. Individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire that included the Paranoia Checklist and were then presented with 24 blurry pictures; half contained a hidden object while the other half showed snowy (visual) noise. Participants were asked to state whether the visual items contained an object and how confident they were in their judgment. Data from 1966 individuals were included following a conservative selection process. Participants high on core paranoid symptoms showed a poor calibration of confidence for correct versus incorrect responses. In particular, participants high on paranoia displayed overconfidence in incorrect responses and demonstrated a 20% error rate for responses made with high confidence compared to a 12% error rate in participants with low paranoia scores. Interestingly, paranoia scores declined after performance of the task. For the first time, overconfidence in errors was demonstrated among individuals with high levels of paranoia using a visual perception task, tentatively suggesting it is a ubiquitous phenomenon. In view of the significant decline in paranoia across time, bias modification programs may incorporate items such as the one employed here to teach patients with clinical paranoia the fallibility of human cognition, which may foster subsequent symptom improvement.

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Open reference in new window "Knowledge corruption for visual perception in individuals high on paranoia"

DOI: 10.1111/ijmr.12017 

Abstract: Motives and values at work have long been key topics of business and management studies. In a focused review of the literature on the nature of human values, this paper identifies a disconnect with the literature on human motivation, despite the otherwise inherent relatedness of the two fields. Specifically, extant theory and research have conceptualized values generally in terms of ideals, namely desired end-states that individuals strive to approach. Although values, by this definition, express motivational concerns, theories of human motivation suggest that there are two forces to consider, i.e. approach and avoidance motivation. By applying this ‘two forces’ perspective to value research, this paper identifies a gap in the literature on values: namely, the idea that individuals are also influenced by counter-ideal values, i.e. end-states that they deliberately seek to avoid. The identification of this gap opens up new opportunities for value research in general and organizational value research in particular. To pave the way for future research, this paper critically discusses the few studies that have taken first steps in that direction and outlines research questions that may follow for issues such as employer branding and person–organization fit. This paper closes by providing suggestions on how to tackle the issue in organizational practice.

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Open reference in new window "Ideal Values and Counter-ideal Values as Two Distinct Forces: Exploring a Gap in Organizational Value Research"

DOI: 10.1080/13546805.2013.819781 

Abstract: Introduction Paranoid beliefs strongly impact behaviour and emotion: Most people with paranoid delusions engage in safety behaviours and a relevant minority even commits violent acts under the influence of delusional thoughts. The present study examined whether different levels of belief conviction modulate subsequent behaviour and emotion. To be able to control for important confounds, we set up an analogue study using nonclinical participants. Methods Participants were recruited from the general population (N=1935) and asked to fill out the Paranoia Checklist. Individuals had to imagine being persecuted by a secret service, whereby the level of subjective conviction was set at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, or 100%. Subsequently, participants had to estimate for 37 behavioural and emotional items how they might respond to this threat. Results Three quarters of the sample affirmed the presence of at least one paranoid idea from the Paranoia Checklist over the duration of a month. The level of belief conviction and paranoia was positively associated with behavioural and emotional consequences. Conclusions Our investigation suggests that a higher degree of belief conviction aggravates the behavioural consequences of persecutory beliefs in a linear fashion. The study is limited by its “what if” character and should be replicated with clinical participants. The study suggests that treatment approaches that aim to reduce overconviction may positively impact behaviour in psychosis.

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Open reference in new window "Are you sure? Delusion conviction moderates the behavioural and emotional consequences of paranoid ideas"

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-013-1663-9 

Abstract: Although the proportion of women in leadership positions has grown over the past decades, women are still underrepresented in leadership roles, which poses an ethical challenge to society at large but business in particular. Accordingly, a growing body of research has attempted to unravel the reasons for this inequality. Besides theoretical progress, a central goal of these studies is to inform measures targeted at increasing the share of women in leadership positions. Striving to contribute to these efforts and drawing on several theoretical approaches, the present study provides a contemporary examination of (a) whether women and men differ in their levels of power motivation and (b) whether potential gender differences in this motivation contribute to the unequal distribution of women and men in leadership positions. Results from four studies provide converging support for these assumptions. Specifically, we found that women consistently reported lower power motivation than men. This in turn mediated the link between gender and leadership role occupancy. These results were robust to several methodological variations including samples from different populations (i.e., student samples and large heterogeneous samples of employee), diverse operationalizations of power motivation and leadership role occupancy (self- and other ratings), and study design (cross-sectional and time-lagged designs). Implications for theory and practice, including ways to contribute to a more equal gender distribution in leadership positions, are discussed.

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Open reference in new window "Gender Differences in Leadership Role Occupancy: The Mediating Role of Power Motivation"

DOI: 10.1155/2013/457010 

Abstract: Online studies are increasingly utilized in applied research. However, lack of external diagnostic verification in many of these investigations is seen as a threat to the reliability of the data. The present study examined the robustness of internet studies on psychosis against simulation. We compared the psychometric properties of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences scale (CAPE), a self-report instrument measuring psychotic symptoms, across three independent samples: (1) participants with a confirmed diagnosis of schizophrenia, (2) participants with self-reported schizophrenia who were recruited over the internet, and (3) clinical experts on schizophrenia as well as students who were asked to simulate a person with schizophrenia when completing the CAPE. The CAPE was complemented by a newly developed 4-item psychosis lie scale. Results demonstrate that experts asked to simulate schizophrenia symptoms could be distinguished from real patients: simulators overreported positive symptoms and showed elevated scores on the psychosis lie scale. The present study suggests that simulated answers in online studies on psychosis can be distinguished from authentic responses. Researchers conducting clinical online studies are advised to adopt a number of methodological precautions and to compare the psychometric properties of online studies to established clinical indices to assert the validity of their results.

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Open reference in new window "Can we trust the internet to measure psychotic symptoms?"

DOI: 10.1177/1368430212461834 

Abstract: Guided by both social cognitive and identity-based perspectives of leadership, the present study investigated how and when the process of leader categorization results in greater leader effectiveness. Specifically, we propose that the relationship between leader categorization and subordinates’ openness toward leadership should be partially mediated by subordinates’ identification with their leaders. Furthermore, seeking to corroborate that the issue of self-esteem is the central ingredient in the identification process, we argue that the mediation should become weaker the more subordinates feel that they are being treated disrespectfully by their leaders, and thus are explicitly undermined in their efforts toward self-enhancement. The proposed mediating effect was tested and supported in two field studies (N 1 = 244, N 2 = 645). In the second study, we also tested and found support for the proposed moderated mediation model. The theoretical and managerial consequences are discussed.

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Open reference in new window "Why follow? The interplay of leader categorization, identification, and feeling respected"

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-011-0997-4 

Abstract: In this article, we hypothesize that leaders who display group-oriented values (i.e., values that focus on the welfare of the group rather than on the self-interest of the leader) will be evaluated more positively by their followers than leaders who do not display group-oriented values. Importantly, we expected these effects to be more pronounced for leaders who are ingroup members (i.e., stemming from the same social group as their followers) than for leaders who are outgroup members (i.e., leaders stemming from a different social group than their followers). We tested our hypotheses in two studies. Results of a field study (N = 95) showed the expected relationship between leaders’ group-oriented values and followers’ identification with their leaders. A scenario study (N = 137) replicated the results and extended it to followers’ endorsement of their leaders. Overall, these findings suggest that displaying group-oriented values pays off more for ingroup than for outgroup leaders.

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Open reference in new window "The Relationship Between Leaders’ Group-Oriented Values and Follower Identification with and Endorsement of Leaders: The Moderating Role of Leaders’ Group Membership"

DOI: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2012.00899.x 

Abstract: Leader categorization theory proposes that the more leaders match their subordinates' cognitive image (prototype) of an ideal leader the easier it is for subordinates to “categorize” them as leaders and consequently follow their leadership. Based on self-concept research, we extend this perspective and argue that the relationship assumed in leader categorization theory should be stronger when subordinates perceive themselves to represent the ideal leader prototype. Further, this moderating effect should be stronger when subordinates perceive the ideal leader prototype to not only be an abstract ideal category, but one that is generally also met in reality; i.e., when it is met by typical leaders. Findings of a cross-sectional study with employees in Germany (N = 297) support both predictions.

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Open reference in new window "Second‐Generation Leader Categorization Research: How Subordinates' Self‐and Typical Leader Perceptions Moderate Leader Categorization Effects"

DOI: 10.1155/2012/384039 

Abstract: Theoretical models ascribe jumping to conclusions (JTCs) a prominent role in the pathogenesis of paranoia. While many earlier studies corroborated this account, some newer investigations have found no or only small associations of the JTC bias with paranoid symptoms. The present study examined whether these inconsistencies in part reflect methodological differences across studies. The study was built upon the psychometric high-risk paradigm. A total of 1899 subjects from the general population took part in an online survey and were administered the Paranoia Checklist as well as one of two different variants of the probabilistic reasoning task: one variant with a traditional instruction (a) and one novel variant that combines probability estimates with decision judgments (b). Factor analysis of the Paranoia Checklist yielded an unspecific suspiciousness factor and a psychotic paranoia factor. The latter was significantly associated with scores indicating hasty decision making. Subjects scoring two standard deviations above the mean of the Paranoia Checklist showed an abnormal data-gathering style relative to subjects with normal scores. Findings suggest that the so-called decision threshold parameter is more sensitive than the conventional JTC index. For future research the specific contents of paranoid beliefs deserve more consideration in the investigation of decision making in schizophrenia as JTC seems to be associated with core psychosis-prone features of paranoia only.

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Open reference in new window "Jumping to Conclusions Is Associated with Paranoia but Not General Suspiciousness: A Comparison of Two Versions of the Probabilistic Reasoning Paradigm"

DOI: 10.1016/j.jocrd.2012.07.001 

Abstract: Online surveys are gaining increasing momentum in clinical research. Ease of recruitment and low cost are two of the biggest advantages of Internet studies. There are, however, concerns about their reliability and validity. The present study compared the psychometric properties of self-report instruments measuring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) across three samples: (1) participants with a confirmed diagnosis of OCD (n=66), (2) participants with a probable diagnosis of OCD (n=86) and (3) clinical experts on OCD and students who were asked to pretend to have OCD (n=121). Psychometric indices of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (Y-BOCS) and the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (OCI-R) served as indicators for reliability and validity. Both patient samples revealed good retest reliability scores and good correlations between Y-BOCS and OCI-R scores. In contrast, the expert group showed poor retest reliabilities and mixed results for the intercorrelations between OCI-R and Y-BOCS scores. Simulators display a marked tendency to over-report symptoms on the OCI-R. Good psychometric properties of online studies may serve as a proxy for the validity of diagnoses.

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Open reference in new window "Good news for allegedly bad studies. Assessment of psychometric properties may help to elucidate deception in online studies on OCD"

DOI: 10.1002/job.1771 

Abstract: Although followers' needs are a central aspect of transformational leadership theory, little is known about their role as mediating mechanisms for this leadership style. The present research thus seeks to integrate and extend theorizing on transformational leadership and self-determination. In particular, we propose that the satisfaction of followers' basic needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and employee outcomes (job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and commitment to the leader). We tested this model in two studies involving employees from a broad spectrum of organizations in Germany (N = 410) and in Switzerland (N = 442). Results revealed largely consistent patterns across both studies. The need for competence fulfillment solely mediated the link between transformational leadership and occupational self-efficacy; the need for relatedness fulfillment solely mediated the link between transformational leadership and commitment to the leader. The mediating pattern for the link between transformational leadership and job satisfaction varied slightly across studies. In Study 1, only the need for autonomy fulfillment was a significant mediator, whereas in Study 2, all three needs mediated this relationship. Taken together, our study integrates theorizing on transformational leadership and self-determination by corroborating that need fulfillment indeed is a central mechanism behind transformational leadership.

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Open reference in new window "How do transformational leaders foster positive employee outcomes? A self‐determination‐based analysis of employees' needs as mediating links"

DOI: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2011.10.006 

Abstract: We examined how procedural fairness interacts with empowering leadership to promote employee OCB. We focused on two core empowering leadership types—encouraging self-development and encouraging independent action. An experiment revealed that leaders encouraging self-development made employees desire status information more (i.e., information regarding one’s value to the organization). Conversely, leaders encouraging independent action decreased employees’ desire for this type of information. Subsequently, a multisource field study (with a US and German sample) showed that encouraging self-development strengthened the relationship between procedural fairness and employee OCB, and this relationship was mediated by employees’ self-perceived status. Conversely, encouraging independent action weakened the procedural fairness-OCB relationship, as mediated by self-perceived status. This research integrates empowering leadership styles into relational fairness theories, highlighting that multiple leader behaviors should be examined in concert and that empowering leadership can have unintended consequences.

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Open reference in new window "When does procedural fairness promote organizational citizenship behavior? Integrating empowering leadership types in relational justice models"

DOI: 10.1080/15213269.2011.620541 

Abstract: Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in power? We argue that the diverse perspectives of evolutionary, social learning, and embodiment theories all suggest that the association between verticality and power is relatively automatic and should, therefore, be visible in the portrayal of powerful and powerless individuals in the media. Four archival studies (with six samples) provide empirical evidence for this hypothesis and indicate that a salience power context reinforces this effect. In addition, two experimental studies confirm these effects for individuals producing media content. We discuss potential implications of this effect.

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Open reference in new window "The power of pictures: Vertical picture angles in power pictures"

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-011-0897-7 

Abstract: Traditionally, conceptualizations of human values are based on the assumption that individuals possess a single integrated value system comprising those values that people are attracted by and strive for. Recently, however, van Quaquebeke et al. (in J Bus Ethics 93:293–305, 2010) proposed that a value system might consist of two largely independent value orientations—an orientation of ideal values and an orientation of counter-ideal values (values that individuals are repelled by), and that both orientations exhibit antithetic effects on people’s responses to the social world. Following a call for further research on this distinction, we conducted two studies to assess the independent effects of ideal and counter-ideal values in leadership settings. Study 1 (N = 131) finds both value orientations to explain unique variance in followers’ vertical respect for their leaders. Study 2 (N = 136) confirms these results and additionally shows an analogous effect for followers’ identification with their leaders. Most importantly, we find that both value orientations exhibit their effects only independently when the content of the two orientations pertain to different value types in Schwartz’s (in J Soc Issues 50:19–46, 1994) circumplex model. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

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Open reference in new window "Two independent value orientations: ideal and counter-ideal leader values and their impact on followers’ respect for and identification with their leaders"

DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.02.011 

Abstract: Leader categorization theory suggests that subordinates implicitly compare their leaders with a cognitively represented ideal image of a leader, i.e., an ideal leader prototype. The better the match, the more favorable subordinates' attitudes toward their leaders will be. We suggest, however, that subordinates not only perceive their leaders against the backdrop of a leader prototype but also themselves. Based on socio-cognitive research, we hypothesize that these self-perceptions in turn should lend more weight to the leader prototype as a benchmark. Three field studies with employees (N = 87; N = 265; N = 385) were undertaken to test our hypothesis. Results confirm that subordinates' perceptions of their leaders against an ideal leader prototype are related to subordinates' respect for their leaders and leadership effectiveness perceptions, and that these relationships are moderated by subordinates' self-perceptions against the ideal leader prototype. This study therefore extends current follower-centric perspectives on leadership and strengthens its ties with fundamental socio-cognitive research.

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Open reference in new window "More than meets the eye: The role of subordinates' self-perceptions in leader categorization processes"

Abstract: Dem deutschen Einkommensteuergesetz wird häufig vorgeworfen, es sei aufgrund seiner zahlreichen Ausnahmeregelungen zu komplex. In der hier beschriebenen Online-Studie (N = 742) wurden 82 Ausnahmen aus dem Einkommensteuergesetz auf ihre Gerechtigkeit und Wichtigkeit sowie die Angemessenheit der angesetzten Freibeträge und Freigrenzen beurteilt. Zusätzlich wurde erhoben, für welche gesellschaftlichen Gruppen Ausnahmeregelungen als gerecht empfunden werden. Es zeigt sich, dass nur wenige Ausnahmen als ungerecht und unwichtig (M < 3) eingeschätzt werden. Allerdings findet sich auch eine Beurteilung als eindeutig gerecht und wichtig (M > 4) nur in einer überschaubaren Fallzahl. Gerechtigkeits- und Wichtigkeitseinschätzungen hängen dabei eng zusammen. Als generell begünstigenswert gelten in erster Linie bedürftige, abhängige und leistungsschwache Gruppen wie Menschen mit Behinderung, Familien oder Kleinunternehmer. Über die verschiedenen Ausnahmen hinweg lässt sich allerdings keine entsprechende klare Struktur in der Bewertung der einzelnen Ausnahmen auffinden. Dabei besteht auch kein korrelationsstatistischer Zusammenhang zwischen sozioökonomischen Daten und der Bewertung der Ausnahmen bzw. den Angaben zu den zu begünstigenden Gruppen. Diese Erkenntnisse ermöglichen Hinweise für zukünftige Modifikationen des Gesetzes.

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Open reference in new window "Gerechtigkeit durch Sonderbehandlung? Wie Bürger Ausnahmeregelungen im Einkommensteuergesetz bewerten"

DOI: 10.1177/1368430210391311 

Abstract: Contemporary so called follower-centric leadership theories often argue that “good leadership is in the eye of the beholder”. Leader categorization theory, for instance, suggests that subordinates use their cognitive representation of an ideal leader (ideal leader prototype) as an implicit “benchmark” to determine their openness towards the target’s leadership, i.e., influence. With the present study, we extend this rationale by hypothesizing that such benchmarking processes are subject to follower individual differences. In particular, we argue that the process of leader categorization plays a bigger role for subordinates who perceive themselves as ideal (potential) leaders. Moreover, this two-way moderation is proposed to be further qualified by subordinates’ disposition to engage in social comparison orientation. Results of two field samples with employees (N = 140; N = 287) confirm our hypotheses. In integrating the leader categorization perspective with an individual difference perspective, we not only expand the scope of follower-centric theorizing on social influence, but also support its validity.

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Open reference in new window "Individual differences in the leader categorization to openness to influence relationship The role of followers’ self-perception and social comparison orientation"

DOI: 10.1123/jsep.32.1.3 

Abstract: Many fouls committed in football (called soccer in some countries) are ambiguous, and there is no objective way of determining who is the "true" perpetrator or the "true" victim. Consequently, fans as well as referees often rely on a variety of decision cues when judging such foul situations. Based on embodiment research, which links perceptions of height to concepts of strength, power, and aggression, we argue that height is going to be one of the decision cues used. As a result, people are more likely to attribute a foul in an ambiguous tackle situation to the taller of two players. We find consistent support for our hypothesis, not only in field data spanning the last seven UEFA Champions League and German Bundesliga seasons, as well as the last three FIFA World Cups, but also in two experimental studies. The resulting dilemma for refereeing in practice is discussed.

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Open reference in new window "How Embodied Cognitions Affect Judgments: Height-Related Attribution Bias in Football Foul Calls"

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-009-0222-x 

Abstract: Ideals (or ideal values) help people to navigate in social life. They indicate at a very fundamental level what people are concerned about, what they strive for, and what they want to be affiliated with. Transferring this to a leader–follower analysis, our first study (n = 306) confirms that followers’ identification and satisfaction with their leaders are stronger, the more leaders match followers’ ideal leader values. Study 2 (n = 244) extends the perspective by introducing the novel concept of counter-ideals (i.e., how an ideal leader should not be) as a second, non-redundant point of reference. Results confirm that a leader’s match on ideal and on counter-ideal values have independent effects in that both explain unique variance in followers’ identification and satisfaction with their leader. Study 3 (n = 136) replicates the previous results in an experimental scenario study and provides evidence for the proposed causal direction of the underlying process. We conclude that counter-ideal values might be an additional point of reference that people use to triangulate targets above and beyond ideal values and discuss the implications of our findings for value research and management.

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Open reference in new window "Two lighthouses to navigate: Effects of ideal and counter-ideal values on follower identification and satisfaction with their leaders"

DOI: 10.1080/13594320902978458 

Abstract: Although leader–member exchange (LMX) research shows that leaders engage in different kinds of relationships with different followers, it remains somewhat of an enigma why one and the same relationship is often rated differently by a leader and the respective follower. We seek to fill that conceptual void by explaining when and why such LMX disagreement is likely to occur. To do so, we reconsider antecedents of LMX quality perceptions and outline how each party's LMX quality perception is primarily dependent on the perceived contributions of the other party, moderated by perceived own contributions. We then integrate the notion of Implicit Leadership and Followership Theories (ILTs and IFTs) to argue that the currencies of contributions differ between leaders and followers. This dyadic model sets the stage to explain that LMX disagreement can stem from (1) differences in both parties' ILTs as well as both parties' IFTs, but also from (2) differences in perceptions of own and other's behaviour. We conclude by discussing communication as a means of overcoming LMX disagreement and propose an array of potential studies along the lines of our conceptualization.

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Open reference in new window "The X-factor: On the relevance of implicit leadership and followership theories for leader–member exchange agreement"

DOI: 10.1026/0932-4089/a000020 

Abstract: Beim Erklimmen der Karriereleiter haben Frauen nach wie vor viele Hürden zu überwinden. Zur Erklärung einiger dieser Hürden verweist die Forschung auf Arbeiten zu impliziten Führungstheorien. Diese zeigen, dass bei den meisten Personen die Konzepte „Frau“ und „Führung“ schlechter kognitiv miteinander assoziiert sind als die Konzepte „Mann“ und „Führung“. Als Konsequenz, so der Schluss dieser Arbeiten, fällt es Personen im Vergleich schwerer, Frauen als Führungskräfte zu kategorisieren und entsprechend auf diese zu reagieren. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird untersucht, ob eine inkongruente Stimulation diesem diskriminierenden impliziten Assoziationsmuster entgegenwirken kann. Die Resultate unseres Experimentes mit einem Impliziten Assoziationstest (IAT; N = 77) zeigen, dass Probanden nach Vorlage von Bildern bekannter weiblicher Führungskräfte Frauen ähnlich schnell mit Führung assoziieren können wie Männer. Dieser Effekt trat allerdings stärker bei den Teilnehmerinnen auf, während bei den Teilnehmern keine signifikante Veränderung in der Reaktionszeit gefunden wurde. Hierauf aufbauend diskutieren wir, welche Rolle Bilder im Rahmen von organisationalen Gleichstellungsbestrebungen, beispielsweise als Teil der Unternehmenskommunikation, einnehmen können.

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Open reference in new window "Kognitive Gleichstellung: Wie die bloße Abbildung bekannter weiblicher und männlicher Führungskräfte unser implizites Denken zu Führung beeinflusst"

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-011-0790-4 

Abstract: To describe leadership as ethical is largely a perceptional phenomenon informed by beliefs about what is normatively appropriate. Yet there is a remarkable scarcity in the leadership literature regarding how to define what is “normatively appropriate.” To shed light on this issue, we draw upon Relational Models Theory (Fiske, 1992, Psychol Rev, 99:689–723), which differentiates between four types of relationships: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. We describe how each of these relationship models dictates a distinct set of normatively appropriate behaviors. We argue that perceptions of unethical leadership behavior result from one of three situations: (a) a mismatch between leader’s and follower’s relational models, (b) a different understanding about the behavioral expression, or preos, of the same relational model, or (c) a violation of a previously agreed upon relational model. Further, we argue that the type of relational model mismatch impacts the perceived severity of a transgression. Finally, we discuss the implications of our model with regard to understanding, managing, and regulating ethical leadership failures.

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Open reference in new window "Using a relational models perspective to understand normatively appropriate conduct in ethical leadership"

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-009-0087-z 

Abstract: Research on work values shows that respectful leadership is highly desired by employees. On the applied side, however, the extant research does not offer many insights as to which concrete leadership behaviors are perceived by employees as indications of respectful leadership. Thus, to offer such insights, we collected and content analyzed employees’ narrations of encounters with respectful leadership (N 1 = 426). The coding process resulted in 19 categories of respectful leadership spanning 149 leadership behaviors. Furthermore, to also harness this comprehensive repertoire for quantitative organizational research, we undertook two more studies (N 2a = 228; N 2b = 412) to empirically derive a feasible item-based measurement of respectful leadership and assess its psychometric qualities. In these studies, we additionally investigated the relationships between respectful leadership as assessed with this new measurement and employees’ vertical and contextual followership as assessed via subordinates’ identification with their leaders, their appraisal respect for their leaders, their feeling of self-determination, and their job satisfaction.

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Open reference in new window "Defining respectful leadership: What it is, how it can be measured, and another glimpse at what it is related to"

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-008-0008-6 

Abstract: Two large online surveys were conducted among employees in Germany to explore the importance employees and organizations place on aspects of interpersonal respect in relation to other work values. The first study (n = 589) extracted a general ranking of work values, showing that employees rate issues of respect involving supervisors particularly high. The second study (n = 318) replicated the previous value ranking. Additionally, it is shown that the value priorities indicated by employees do not always match their perceptions of actual organizational practices. Particularly, interpersonal respect issues that involve employees’ supervisors diverge strongly negative. Consequences and potentials for change in organizations are discussed.

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Open reference in new window "Find out how much it means to me! The importance of interpersonal respect in work values compared to perceived organizational practices"

DOI: 10.1026/0932-4089.52.4.169 

Abstract: Untergebene erfolgreich zu beeinflussen, ist eine der zentralen Funktionen von Führung. Daher ist es für die Führungsforschung wie auch für Praktizierende in Organisationen interessant zu verstehen, wann Untergebene ihre Führungskräfte respektieren in dem Sinne, dass sie sich freiwillig und gerne gegenüber deren Einfluss öffnen. Die Forschung zu Führungskraftkategorisierung zeigt, dass die Einflussoffenheit von Untergebenen umso größer ist, je stärker Führungskräfte in der Wahrnehmung der Untergebenen deren idealen Führungsprototypen entsprechen. Dieser Befund wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit mit identitätstheoretischen Konzepten der Führungsforschung in Verbindung gebracht, die davon ausgehen, dass Identifikationsprozessen eine wichtige Rolle bei der Vermittlung von Einflussoffenheit zukommt. In zwei Feldstudien (N1 = 496 und N2 = 700) können wir zeigen, dass der Zusammenhang von Führungskraftkategorisierung und der Offenheit von Untergebenen für Führungseinfluss partiell durch die Identifikation der Untergebenen mit ihren Führungskräften mediiert wird. Die Implikationen dieses Mediationsmodells für Theorie und betriebliche Praxis werden abschließend diskutiert.

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Open reference in new window "Ich folge Dir, wenn Du in meinen Augen eine gute Führungskraft bist, denn dann kann ich mich auch mit Dir identifizieren"

DOI: 10.1026/0932-4089.52.2.70 

Abstract: Der kognitionspsychologisch geprägte Ansatz der Führungskraft-Kategorisierung geht davon aus, dass Mitarbeiter umso positiver auf ihre Führungskräfte reagieren, je stärker diese ihren impliziten Vorstellungen über Führung (Führungsprototypen) entsprechen – also eine hohe Passung mit diesen aufweisen. Da Führungsprototypen stark kulturgeprägt sind, erscheinen die vorhandenen, vorwiegend aus dem englischsprachigen Raum stammenden Instrumente für Forschung im deutschsprachigen Raum jedoch wenig geeignet. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden deshalb zwei neu entwickelte Maße vorgestellt. Zum einen wurde der deutsche GLOBE-Datensatz in Hinblick auf zentrale Führungsattribute in Deutschland reanalysiert, um eine Erhebung der Passung mit einem sozial geteilten Führungsprototyp möglich zu machen. Zum anderen wurde ein piktorales Maß zur Erhebung der Passung mit einem idiosynkratischen Führungsprototyp entwickelt. Während der Vorteil des ersten Instruments die inhaltliche Auswertbarkeit des Passungsprofils ist, liegt der Vorteil des piktoralen Instrumentes in seiner hohen Effizienz und Kulturunabhängigkeit. Auch wenn eine erste Untersuchung in einem Unternehmen (N = 104) die konvergente und Kriteriumsvalidität beider Instrumente bestätigt, so schränkt das Studiendesign (Querschnitt mit Common Source Data) eine Einschätzung der psychometrischen Qualität beider Instrumente ein. Notwendig erscheinende Folgestudien werden daher abschließend beschrieben.

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Open reference in new window "Entwicklung und erste Validierung zweier Instrumente zur Erfassung von Führungskräfte-Kategorisierung im deutschsprachigen Raum"

DOI: 10.1007/s11612-007-0015-6 

Abstract: Due to a rising interest in empirical ‘respect’ research but at the same time a somewhat fuzzy use of the term and its semantically close neighbors, we introduce a conceptual framework. The framework draws on existing philosophical traditions and empirical psychological works alike. It is pointed out that respect, acceptance, and tolerance are all attitudes of a subject towards an object which are not aligned on one dimension, but are concerned with quite different issues. Moreover, we propose that research needs to differentiate between two very different kinds of respect. Whereas appraisal respect, acceptance, and tolerance are attitudinal reflections of a subject’s decisions on certain issues (i.e., on influence, membership, and presence), recognition respect is proposed to be an overarching processing mode, i.e., a general attitude on how to confront others.

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Open reference in new window "“It’s not tolerance I’m asking for, it’s respect!”: A conceptual framework to differentiate between tolerance, acceptance and (two types of) respect"

Abstract: An increase in the value added tax rate is usually thought of as reducing the consumption in a country and therefore as not adequate to improve the domestic market situation. To check on these assumptions we undertook two studies (online and offline) based on the principles of Economic Psychology. We could show that an increase in VAT does indeed lead customers to think that they will consume less. Nonetheless in a succeeding experimental scenario technique (16% vs. 19% VAT & unreliable vs. reliable pensions & 11% vs. 6% unemployment rate) we found evidence that a rise in VAT alone would not change the degree of consumption in comparison to today's practices. Moreover by combining the rise with a reduction in other (uncertainty-) factors we could even make out an increase in self-rated consumption. A substantial impact of other possible moderators (e.g. age, sex, income, East-West Germans) could not be detected. These results indicate that the debate on the raise of VAT in Germany is not complex enough. Moreover it focuses on the wrong topics. Interestingly by reducing uncertainty in the populace an increase in VAT can even stimulate consumption in the domestic market.

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Open reference in new window "Mehrwertsteuererhöhung: Eine wirtschaftspsychologische Analyse ihrer Wirkung"

Journal Articles (Professional)

Abstract: Ausgeprägtes Misstrauen kann sich positiv auf die Karriere auswirken. Das zeigt eine Studie der Kühne Logistics University in Hamburg. Die Ergebnisse weisen auch darauf hin, dass subklinische Paranoia wesentlich funktionalere Eigenschaften zu haben scheint als bisher angenommen.

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Open reference in new window "Paranoide Gedanken: Ein Vorteil für die Karriere"

Abstract: Mitarbeiter wollen sich respektvoll behandelt fühlen, vor allem von ihren Führungskräften. Umgekehrt wollen sie auch ihrerseits ihre Führungskraft respektieren können. Beide Bedürfnisse sind tief im Menschen verwurzelt.

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Open reference in new window "Mehr als ein Kuschelfaktor: Die Sehnsucht nach Respekt"

Abstract: In an effort to explain leadership effectiveness, contemporary theories of leadership take subordinates’ expectations and beliefs about leaders and the leadership process more and more into account. This paper provides an overview on the fairly new, so called “follower-centric” research. We explain the cognitive information processing mechanisms that have been revealed in the scientific literature, discuss the general paradigm shift with respect to leadership effectiveness in light of a Constructionist and System Theory perspective, and illustrate the potentials but also the pitfalls of these insights for business practice.

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Open reference in new window "Leadership Is In The Eye of The Beholder: Cognitive Construction and Recognition of Leadership"


Book Chapters

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-658-12554-7_5 

Abstract: Im Beitrag wird aus verschiedenen Perspektiven der Frage nachgegangen, ob Führung weiblicher wird bzw. werden sollte. Dabei wird die Vorstellung von weiblich versus männlich (Geschlechtsrollen) mit der Vorstellung von Führung (Implizite Führungstheorien) und unterschiedlichem Führungsverhalten (z. B. transformational) verglichen. Die Autoren erläutern und nennen empirische Belege, warum effektive Führung sowohl weiblich-konnotierte (kommunale) als auch männlich-konnotierte (agentische) Verhaltensweisen umfasst, aber gerade weiblich-konnotierte (kommunale) Charakteristiken in Zeiten von (finanziellen) Krisen und schlechter Unternehmensleistung an Bedeutung gewinnen.

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Open reference in new window "Wird Führung weiblicher? Warum Krisen nach anderer Führung verlangen"

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-55080-5_4 

Abstract: In diesem Kapitel beleuchten wir das für das Verhältnis zwischen Führungskräften und ihren Mitarbeitern zentrale Thema des Respekts. Dabei unterscheiden wir zwischen respektvoller und respektierter Führung: Bei respektvoller Führung geht es darum, Mitarbeitern trotz Hierarchieunterschieds auf Augenhöhe zu begegnen. Bei respektierter Führung geht es darum, dass Führungskräfte von ihren Mitarbeitern Respekt für ihre Fähigkeiten und Leistungen erhalten. Wir zeigen, welche Konsequenzen Führung in Bezug auf beide Respektformen hat und wie sie zustande kommt bzw. sich fördern lässt.

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Open reference in new window "Respektvolle Führung fördern und entwickeln"

Abstract: Vertreter der organisationalen Praxis und klassischen Führungsforschung sind von Konstrukten wie Führungspersönlichkeit oder Führungsverhalten sprichwörtlich verzaubert. In der Tat wird Führungserfolg fast ausschließlich auf das eine oder das andere zurückgeführt. Dabei wird jedoch die entscheidende Rolle, die Mitarbeiter in Führungsprozessen einnehmen, kaum beachtet. Um besser verstehen zu können, unter welchen Bedingungen Führung effektiv ist, stellen moderne Führungstheorien daher eher die Mitarbeiter in den Mittelpunkt ihrer Betrachtungen. In diesem Kapitel führen wir die Leser in diese Geführtenperspektive auf den Führungsprozess ein, indem wir beschreiben, wie Mitarbeiter mit Hilfe sogenannter impliziter Führungstheorien das Wirken ihrer Führungskräfte wahrnehmen und schlussendlich auf dieser Basis auf diese reagieren. Anschließend leiten wir anhand von verschiedenen Beispielen aus der Praxis Konsequenzen der Geführtenperspektive für die Gestaltung von Führungsprozessen und der Führungskultur von Unternehmen ab

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Open reference in new window "Führung aus Sicht der Geführten verstehen"