Kalhoefer, Christian and Guenter Lang
Credit and Capital Markets – Kredit und Kapital: Volume 52, Issue 2
Credit and Capital Markets – Kredit und Kapital, 52 (2): 212-191, (2019).
Abstract: Governments worldwide reacted swiftly to the global financial crisis by tougher regulations. This paper investigates the impacts of the regulatory environment on operating costs using panel data of 2,200 German banks over the timeframe from 1999 to 2014. We estimate cost functions with and without proxies for regulation and analyze the results with respect to period, bank size, and group affiliation. Our results show that regulatory costs were peaking in 2001, 2008, and lately since 2012. Most interesting, however, is the asymmetry of regulation: Whereas the cost effects were symmetric for all banks until 2003, the last ten years were different. Larger institutions and savings banks could neutralize the impacts of increasing regulation on operating costs. In contrast, smaller banks, especially if they are cooperative banks, were facing significant cost increases. We therefore expect unintended structural shifts like a reduction in the diversity of banks, which are negative for competition, service quality, and for the stability of the financial system.Show all publications