|Copy reference link||DOI: doi:10.1111/pops.12311|
Abstract: The present study investigates the consequences of respectful versus disrespectful communication in political debates on voters’ social judgments and voting decisions. Reconciling previously mixed results, we argue that the consequences of disrespect vary with the judgment dimension (communion vs. agency) and voters’ moral identity. An initial study (N = 197) finds that a political candidate's disrespect towards his or her opponent affects voting decision through voting intention. A second study (N = 327) shows that disrespect influences voting intention through communion but not through agency ratings. Qualifying the previous finding, a third study (N = 329) shows that both communion and agency judgments act as mediators, but in different ways depending on the level of moral identity. Overall, communion judgments played a more prominent part in explaining the consequences of disrespectful communication. Our findings thus present a nuanced picture of respect and disrespect in political communication and shed light on their ramifications.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1177/0018726716639117|
Abstract: Recent conceptual work suggests that the sense of identity that employees develop vis-vis their organization goes beyond the traditional notion of organizational identification and can also involve conflicting impulses represented by ambivalent identification. In this study, we seek to advance this perspective on identification by proposing and empirically examining important antecedents and consequences. In line with our hypotheses, an experimental study (N = 199 employees) shows that organizational identification and ambivalent identification interactively influence employees’ willingness to engage in organizational citizenship behavior. The effect of organizational identification on organizational citizenship behavior is significantly reduced when employees experience ambivalent identification. A field study involving employees from a broad spectrum of organizations and industries (N = 564) replicated these findings. Moreover, results show that employees’ promotion and prevention focus form differential relationships with organizational identification and ambivalent identification, providing first evidence for a link between employees’ regulatory focus and the dynamics of identification. Implications for the expanded model of organizational identification and the understanding of ambivalence in organizations are discussed.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1007/s10551-016-3097-7|
Abstract: Research on value congruence rests on the assumption that values denote desirable behaviors and ideals that employees and organizations strive to approach. In the present study, we develop and test the argument that a more complete understanding of value congruence can be achieved by considering a second type of congruence based on employees’ and organizations’ counter-ideal values (i.e., what both seek to avoid). We examined this proposition in a time-lagged study of 672 employees from various occupational and organizational backgrounds. We used difference scores as well as polynomial regression and response surface analyses to test our hypotheses. Consistent with our hypotheses, results reveal that counter-ideal value congruence has unique relations to employees’ trust in the organization that go beyond the effects of ideal value congruence. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of this expanded perspective on value congruence.
|Copy reference link||DOI: doi:10.1007/s10551-015-2784-0|
Abstract: To advance current knowledge on ethical decision-making in organizations, we integrate two perspectives that have thus far developed independently: the organizational identification perspective and the ethical climate perspective. We illustrate the interaction between these perspectives in two studies (Study 1, N = 144, US sample; and Study 2, N = 356, UK sample), in which we presented participants with moral business dilemmas. Specifically, we found that organizational identification increased moral decision-making only when the organization’s climate was perceived to be ethical. In addition, we disentangle this effect in Study 2 from participants’ moral identity. We argue that the interactive influence of organizational identification and ethical climate, rather than the independent influence of either of these perspectives, is crucial for understanding moral decision-making in organizations.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.5465/amr.2014.0537|
Abstract: Practitioners repeatedly note that the everyday behavior of asking followers open questions and attentively listening to their responses is a powerful leadership technique. Yet, despite such popularity, these practices are currently under-theorized. Addressing this gap, we formally define the behavioral configuration of asking open questions combined with attentive listening as “Respectful Inquiry”, and then draw on Self-Determination Theory to provide a motivational account of its antecedents, consequences, and moderators within a leader-follower relationship. Specifically, we argue that Respectful Inquiry principally satisfies followers' basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. Against this background, we highlight ironic contexts where Respectful Inquiry is likely to be especially rare, but would also be especially valuable. These ironic contexts include situations where interpersonal power difference, time pressure, physical distance, cognitive load, follower dissatisfaction, or organizational control focus are high. We additionally outline how the effect of Respectful Inquiry behaviors critically hinges upon the interaction history a follower has with a leader. More generally, we make the suggestion that the leadership field would benefit from complementing its traditional focus on “gestalt” leadership styles with research on concrete and narrow communicative behaviors, such as Respectful Inquiry.
|Copy reference link||DOI: doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01446||DOI: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01446|
Abstract: A six-month, time-lagged online survey among 441 employees in diverse industries was conducted to investigate the role paranoia plays as an antecedent and as a consequence of advancement in organizations. The background of the study is the argument that it requires active social sense-making and behavioral adaptability to advance in organizations. The present paper thus explores the extent to which employees’ paranoid cognitions—representative of a heightened albeit suspicious sense-making and behavioral adaptability—link with their advancement in organizations (operationalized as changes in afforded span of control), both as an antecedent and an outcome. Following the strategy to illuminate the process by interaction analysis, both conditions (antecedent and outcome) are examined in interaction with employees’ self-monitoring, which is considered representative of a heightened but healthy sense-making and behavioral adaptability. Results support the expected interference interaction between paranoid cognitions and self-monitoring in that each can to some degree compensate for the other in explaining employees’ organizational advancement. Reversely, changes in span of control also affected paranoid cognitions. In particular, low self-monitors, i.e. those low in adaptive sense-making, reacted with heightened paranoid cognitions when demoted. In effect, the present study is thus the first to empirically support that paranoid cognitions can be a consequence but also a prerequisite for getting ahead in organizations. Practical advice should, however, be suspended until it is better understood whether and under what circumstances paranoia may relate not only to personally getting ahead but also to an increased effectiveness for the benefit of the organization.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1007/s10551-014-2291-8|
Abstract: Interpersonal respect can be differentiated into two kinds: (1) horizontal respect, i.e. treating someone with dignity; and (2) vertical respect, i.e. genuinely honoring someone’s merits. With the present research, we draw on motivation theory to explore their interplay in leadership relations. Specifically, we argue for a moderated mediation hypothesis in that (a) leaders’ horizontal respect for their subordinates fundamentally speaks to subordinates’ self-determination and (b) that the message of respectful leadership is enhanced by the vertical respect subordinates have for their leaders. As a result, subordinates are more satisfied with their jobs, which should also show in a decreased willingness to leave. The proposed model was supported in two survey studies (N = 391 and N = 518) and an experimental scenario study (N = 107)—thus suggesting that perceived leader behavior needs to be complemented by leader standing.
|Copy reference link||DOI: doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01126|
Abstract: Previous research indicated that leader moral identity (MI; i.e., leaders’ self-definition in terms of moral attributes) predicts to what extent followers perceive their leader as ethical (i.e., demonstrating and promoting ethical conduct in the organization). Leadership, however, is a relational process that involves leaders and followers. Building on this understanding, we hypothesized that follower and leader MI (a) interact in predicting whether followers will perceive their leaders as ethical and, as a result, (b) influence followers’ perceptions of leader–follower relationship quality. A dyadic field study (N = 101) shows that leader MI is a stronger predictor of followers’ perceptions of ethical leadership for followers who are high (vs. low) in MI. Perceptions of ethical leadership in turn predict how the quality of the relationship will be perceived. Hence, whether leader MI translates to perceptions of ethical leadership and of better relationship quality depends on the MI of followers.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.5539/jedp.v5n1p74|
Abstract: This study examines the relationship between students’ (N = 334) perceived teacher respect and their performance on a math exam in school settings. The incremental validity of respect on performance beyond that accounted for by intelligence is assessed. Results suggest that respect accounts for significant additional variability in students’ performance above that accounted for by intelligence. Further analyses reveal that the relationship between respect and performance is moderated by immigration. For German students (N = 150), perceived respect accounts for a part of the variability in performance over the variability accounted for by intelligence. For students with an immigrant background (N = 181) this relationship is not significant. Cultural implications of respect in school settings are discussed.
|Copy reference link||DOI: doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.02.011|
Abstract: Background and objectives Overconfidence in errors is a well-replicated cognitive bias in psychosis. However, prior studies have sometimes failed to find differences between patients and controls for more difficult tasks. We pursued the hypothesis that overconfidence in errors is exaggerated in participants with a liability to psychosis relative to controls only when they feel competent in the respective topic and/or deem the question easy. Whereas subjective competence likely enhances confidence in those with low psychosis liability as well, we still expected to find more ‘residual’ caution in the latter group. Methods We adopted a psychometric high-risk approach to circumvent the confounding influence of treatment. A total of 2321 individuals from the general population were administered a task modeled after the “Who wants to be a millionaire” quiz. Participants were requested to endorse one out of four response options, graded for confidence, and were asked to provide ratings regarding subjective competence for the knowledge domain as well as the subjective difficulty of each item. Results In line with our assumption, overconfidence in errors was increased overall in participants scoring high on the Paranoia Checklist core paranoia subscale (2 5SD6 above the mean). This pattern of results was particularly prominent for items for which participants considered themselves competent and which they rated as easy. Limitations Results need to be replicated in a clinical sample. Discussion In support of our hypothesis, subjective competence and task difficulty moderate overconfidence in errors in psychosis. Trainings that teach patients the fallibility of human cognition may help reduce delusional ideation.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1177/0149206313478187|
Abstract: Existing justice theory explains why fair procedures motivate employees to adopt cooperative goals, but it fails to explain how employees strive toward these goals. We study self-regulatory abilities that underlie goal striving, abilities that should thus affect employees’ display of cooperative behavior in response to procedural justice. Building on action control theory, we argue that employees who display effective self-regulatory strategies (action-oriented employees) display relatively strong cooperative behavioral responses to fair procedures. A multisource field study and a laboratory experiment support this prediction. A subsequent experiment addresses the process underlying this effect by explicitly showing that action orientation facilitates attainment of the cooperative goals that people adopt in response to fair procedures, thus facilitating the display of actual cooperative behavior. This goal striving approach better integrates research on the relationship between procedural justice and employee cooperation in the self-regulation and the work motivation literature. It also offers organizations a new perspective on making procedural justice effective in stimulating employee cooperation by suggesting factors that help employees reach their adopted goals.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.08.005|
Abstract: The literature on ethical leadership has focused primarily on the way ethical leaders influence follower moral judgment and behavior. It has overlooked that follower responses to ethical leaders may differ depending on the attention they pay to the moral aspects of leadership. In the present research, we introduce moral attentiveness as an important moderator for the relationship between ethical leadership and unethical employee behavior. In a multisource field study (N = 90), we confirm our hypothesis that morally attentive followers respond with more deviance to unethical leaders. An experimental study (N = 96) replicates the finding. Our paper extends the current leader-focused literature by examining how follower moral attentiveness determines the response of followers to ethical or unethical leadership.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.12.044|
Abstract: Studies revealed that patients with paranoid schizophrenia display overconfidence in errors for memory and social cognition tasks. The present investigation examined whether this pattern holds true for visual perception tasks.Nonclinical participants were recruited via an online panel. Individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire that included the Paranoia Checklist and were then presented with 24 blurry pictures; half contained a hidden object while the other half showed snowy (visual) noise. Participants were asked to state whether the visual items contained an object and how confident they were in their judgment. Data from 1966 individuals were included following a conservative selection process.Participants high on core paranoid symptoms showed a poor calibration of confidence for correct versus incorrect responses. In particular, participants high on paranoia displayed overconfidence in incorrect responses and demonstrated a 20% error rate for responses made with high confidence compared to a 12% error rate in participants with low paranoia scores. Interestingly, paranoia scores declined after performance of the task.For the first time, overconfidence in errors was demonstrated among individuals with high levels of paranoia using a visual perception task, tentatively suggesting it is a ubiquitous phenomenon. In view of the significant decline in paranoia across time, bias modification programs may incorporate items such as the one employed here to teach patients with clinical paranoia the fallibility of human cognition, which may foster subsequent symptom improvement.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1080/13546805.2013.819781|
Abstract: IntroductionParanoid beliefs strongly impact behaviour and emotion: Most people with paranoid delusions engage in safety behaviours and a relevant minority even commits violent acts under the influence of delusional thoughts. The present study examined whether different levels of belief conviction modulate subsequent behaviour and emotion. To be able to control for important confounds, we set up an analogue study using nonclinical participants.MethodsParticipants were recruited from the general population (N=1935) and asked to fill out the Paranoia Checklist. Individuals had to imagine being persecuted by a secret service, whereby the level of subjective conviction was set at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, or 100%. Subsequently, participants had to estimate for 37 behavioural and emotional items how they might respond to this threat.ResultsThree quarters of the sample affirmed the presence of at least one paranoid idea from the Paranoia Checklist over the duration of a month. The level of belief conviction and paranoia was positively associated with behavioural and emotional consequences.ConclusionsOur investigation suggests that a higher degree of belief conviction aggravates the behavioural consequences of persecutory beliefs in a linear fashion. The study is limited by its “what if” character and should be replicated with clinical participants. The study suggests that treatment approaches that aim to reduce overconviction may positively impact behaviour in psychosis.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1007/s10551-013-1663-9|
Abstract: Although the proportion of women in leadership positions has grown over the past decades, women are still underrepresented in leadership roles, which poses an ethical challenge to society at large but business in particular. Accordingly, a growing body of research has attempted to unravel the reasons for this inequality. Besides theoretical progress, a central goal of these studies is to inform measures targeted at increasing the share of women in leadership positions. Striving to contribute to these efforts and drawing on several theoretical approaches, the present study provides a contemporary examination of (a) whether women and men differ in their levels of power motivation and (b) whether potential gender differences in this motivation contribute to the unequal distribution of women and men in leadership positions. Results from four studies provide converging support for these assumptions. Specifically, we found that women consistently reported lower power motivation than men. This in turn mediated the link between gender and leadership role occupancy. These results were robust to several methodological variations including samples from different populations (i.e., student samples and large heterogeneous samples of employee), diverse operationalizations of power motivation and leadership role occupancy (self- and other ratings), and study design (cross-sectional and time-lagged designs). Implications for theory and practice, including ways to contribute to a more equal gender distribution in leadership positions, are discussed.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1177/1742715013476081|
Abstract: Leader categorization theory proposes that subordinates perceive leaders against the backdrop of a cognitively represented leader prototype. The match between the two ultimately determines how favourably subordinates respond towards leaders. The respective research, however, yields some confusion as to what kind of prototype is exactly used in this process. Are leaders matched against a central tendency leader prototype, i.e. to an average image of leaders in general, or is it subordinates' goal-directed leader prototype, i.e. their image of an ideal leader, that leaders have to live up to? We reanalysed a field study (N = 266) and conducted a second one likewise with employees (N = 271) to contrast the relevance of both prototypes. The analyses reveal that only the match with the ideal leader prototype was predictive of subordinates’ responses towards their leaders. Previous central tendency leader categorization research thus might have pertained to the ideal aspects in the existing leader population.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1111/ijmr.12017|
Abstract: Motives and values at work have long been key topics of business and management studies. In a focused review of the literature on the nature of human values, this paper identifies a disconnect with the literature on human motivation, despite the otherwise inherent relatedness of the two fields. Specifically, extant theory and research have conceptualized values generally in terms of ideals, namely desired end-states that individuals strive to approach. Although values, by this definition, express motivational concerns, theories of human motivation suggest that there are two forces to consider, i.e. approach and avoidance motivation. By applying this ‘two forces’ perspective to value research, this paper identifies a gap in the literature on values: namely, the idea that individuals are also influenced by counter-ideal values, i.e. end-states that they deliberately seek to avoid. The identification of this gap opens up new opportunities for value research in general and organizational value research in particular. To pave the way for future research, this paper critically discusses the few studies that have taken first steps in that direction and outlines research questions that may follow for issues such as employer branding and person–organization fit. This paper closes by providing suggestions on how to tackle the issue in organizational practice.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1002/mar.20686|
Abstract: Values are an important concept in marketing because they comprise part of peoples’ identity and can thus help marketers separate and target different audiences. Unsurprisingly, places and their marketing initiatives increasingly try to appeal to (potential) residents’ identity by communicating core values. While the notion of value congruence is not novel, most empirical methods in marketing to date only account for the degree rather than the level of congruence. To address this issue, the present article utilizes polynomial regression and response surface methodology (Edwards & Parry, 1993) in the context of place marketing. Accordingly, the first study shows that the perceived congruence of residents’ own values and the values of stereotypical city inhabitants significantly affect residents’ feelings about their own cities (N = 1257), but with different effects for different values and levels of congruence. This finding holds not only for popular target groups such as the “creative class” but also across all groups. The second study (N = 449) shows that city slogans can effectively communicate specific values and that value congruence leads to a more positive evaluation of the city brand. Finally, the article discusses the benefits of differentiating between levels of congruence both in marketing research in general, and place brand management in particular.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1177/1368430212461834|
Abstract: Guided by both social cognitive and identity-based perspectives of leadership, the present study investigated how and when the process of leader categorization results in greater leader effectiveness. Specifically, we propose that the relationship between leader categorization and subordinates’ openness toward leadership should be partially mediated by subordinates’ identification with their leaders. Furthermore, seeking to corroborate that the issue of self-esteem is the central ingredient in the identification process, we argue that the mediation should become weaker the more subordinates feel that they are being treated disrespectfully by their leaders, and thus are explicitly undermined in their efforts toward self-enhancement. The proposed mediating effect was tested and supported in two field studies (N 1 = 244, N 2 = 645). In the second study, we also tested and found support for the proposed moderated mediation model. The theoretical and managerial consequences are discussed.
|Copy reference link||DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/457010|
Abstract: Online studies are increasingly utilized in applied research. However, lack of external diagnostic verification in many of these investigations is seen as a threat to the reliability of the data. The present study examined the robustness of internet studies on psychosis against simulation. We compared the psychometric properties of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences scale (CAPE), a self-report instrument measuring psychotic symptoms, across three independent samples: (1) participants with a confirmed diagnosis of schizophrenia, (2) participants with self-reported schizophrenia who were recruited over the internet, and (3) clinical experts on schizophrenia as well as students who were asked to simulate a person with schizophrenia when completing the CAPE. The CAPE was complemented by a newly developed 4-item psychosis lie scale. Results demonstrate that experts asked to simulate schizophrenia symptoms could be distinguished from real patients: simulators overreported positive symptoms and showed elevated scores on the psychosis lie scale. The present study suggests that simulated answers in online studies on psychosis can be distinguished from authentic responses. Researchers conducting clinical online studies are advised to adopt a number of methodological precautions and to compare the psychometric properties of online studies to established clinical indices to assert the validity of their results.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1002/job.1771|
Abstract: Although followers' needs are a central aspect of transformational leadership theory, little is known about their role as mediating mechanisms for this leadership style. The present research thus seeks to integrate and extend theorizing on transformational leadership and self-determination. In particular, we propose that the satisfaction of followers' basic needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and employee outcomes (job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and commitment to the leader). We tested this model in two studies involving employees from a broad spectrum of organizations in Germany (N = 410) and in Switzerland (N = 442). Results revealed largely consistent patterns across both studies. The need for competence fulfillment solely mediated the link between transformational leadership and occupational self-efficacy; the need for relatedness fulfillment solely mediated the link between transformational leadership and commitment to the leader. The mediating pattern for the link between transformational leadership and job satisfaction varied slightly across studies. In Study 1, only the need for autonomy fulfillment was a significant mediator, whereas in Study 2, all three needs mediated this relationship. Taken together, our study integrates theorizing on transformational leadership and self-determination by corroborating that need fulfillment indeed is a central mechanism behind transformational leadership.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1016/j.jocrd.2012.07.001|
Abstract: Online surveys are gaining increasing momentum in clinical research. Ease of recruitment and low cost are two of the biggest advantages of Internet studies. There are, however, concerns about their reliability and validity.The present study compared the psychometric properties of self-report instruments measuring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) across three samples: (1) participants with a confirmed diagnosis of OCD (n=66), (2) participants with a probable diagnosis of OCD (n=86) and (3) clinical experts on OCD and students who were asked to pretend to have OCD (n=121). Psychometric indices of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (Y-BOCS) and the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (OCI-R) served as indicators for reliability and validity.Both patient samples revealed good retest reliability scores and good correlations between Y-BOCS and OCI-R scores. In contrast, the expert group showed poor retest reliabilities and mixed results for the intercorrelations between OCI-R and Y-BOCS scores. Simulators display a marked tendency to over-report symptoms on the OCI-R.Good psychometric properties of online studies may serve as a proxy for the validity of diagnoses.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1155/2012/384039|
Abstract: Theoretical models ascribe jumping to conclusions (JTCs) a prominent role in the pathogenesis of paranoia. While many earlier studies corroborated this account, some newer investigations have found no or only small associations of the JTC bias with paranoid symptoms. The present study examined whether these inconsistencies in part reflect methodological differences across studies. The study was built upon the psychometric high-risk paradigm. A total of 1899 subjects from the general population took part in an online survey and were administered the Paranoia Checklist as well as one of two different variants of the probabilistic reasoning task: one variant with a traditional instruction (a) and one novel variant that combines probability estimates with decision judgments (b). Factor analysis of the Paranoia Checklist yielded an unspecific suspiciousness factor and a psychotic paranoia factor. The latter was significantly associated with scores indicating hasty decision making. Subjects scoring two standard deviations above the mean of the Paranoia Checklist showed an abnormal data-gathering style relative to subjects with normal scores. Findings suggest that the so-called decision threshold parameter is more sensitive than the conventional JTC index. For future research the specific contents of paranoid beliefs deserve more consideration in the investigation of decision making in schizophrenia as JTC seems to be associated with core psychosis-prone features of paranoia only.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2011.10.006|
Abstract: We examined how procedural fairness interacts with empowering leadership to promote employee OCB. We focused on two core empowering leadership types—encouraging self-development and encouraging independent action. An experiment revealed that leaders encouraging self-development made employees desire status information more (i.e., information regarding one’s value to the organization). Conversely, leaders encouraging independent action decreased employees’ desire for this type of information. Subsequently, a multisource field study (with a US and German sample) showed that encouraging self-development strengthened the relationship between procedural fairness and employee OCB, and this relationship was mediated by employees’ self-perceived status. Conversely, encouraging independent action weakened the procedural fairness-OCB relationship, as mediated by self-perceived status. This research integrates empowering leadership styles into relational fairness theories, highlighting that multiple leader behaviors should be examined in concert and that empowering leadership can have unintended consequences.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1007/s10551-011-0997-4|
Abstract: In this article, we hypothesize that leaders who display group-oriented values (i.e., values that focus on the welfare of the group rather than on the self-interest of the leader) will be evaluated more positively by their followers than leaders who do not display group-oriented values. Importantly, we expected these effects to be more pronounced for leaders who are ingroup members (i.e., stemming from the same social group as their followers) than for leaders who are outgroup members (i.e., leaders stemming from a different social group than their followers). We tested our hypotheses in two studies. Results of a field study (N = 95) showed the expected relationship between leaders’ group-oriented values and followers’ identification with their leaders. A scenario study (N = 137) replicated the results and extended it to followers’ endorsement of their leaders. Overall, these findings suggest that displaying group-oriented values pays off more for ingroup than for outgroup leaders.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2012.00899.x|
Abstract: Leader categorization theory proposes that the more leaders match their subordinates' cognitive image (prototype) of an ideal leader the easier it is for subordinates to “categorize” them as leaders and consequently follow their leadership. Based on self-concept research, we extend this perspective and argue that the relationship assumed in leader categorization theory should be stronger when subordinates perceive themselves to represent the ideal leader prototype. Further, this moderating effect should be stronger when subordinates perceive the ideal leader prototype to not only be an abstract ideal category, but one that is generally also met in reality; i.e., when it is met by typical leaders. Findings of a cross-sectional study with employees in Germany (N = 297) support both predictions.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.02.011|
Abstract: Leader categorization theory suggests that subordinates implicitly compare their leaders with a cognitively represented ideal image of a leader, i.e., an ideal leader prototype. The better the match, the more favorable subordinates' attitudes toward their leaders will be. We suggest, however, that subordinates not only perceive their leaders against the backdrop of a leader prototype but also themselves. Based on socio-cognitive research, we hypothesize that these self-perceptions in turn should lend more weight to the leader prototype as a benchmark. Three field studies with employees (N = 87; N = 265; N = 385) were undertaken to test our hypothesis. Results confirm that subordinates' perceptions of their leaders against an ideal leader prototype are related to subordinates' respect for their leaders and leadership effectiveness perceptions, and that these relationships are moderated by subordinates' self-perceptions against the ideal leader prototype. This study therefore extends current follower-centric perspectives on leadership and strengthens its ties with fundamental socio-cognitive research.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1177/1368430210391311|
Abstract: Contemporary so called follower-centric leadership theories often argue that “good leadership is in the eye of the beholder”. Leader categorization theory, for instance, suggests that subordinates use their cognitive representation of an ideal leader (ideal leader prototype) as an implicit “benchmark” to determine their openness towards the target’s leadership, i.e., influence. With the present study, we extend this rationale by hypothesizing that such benchmarking processes are subject to follower individual differences. In particular, we argue that the process of leader categorization plays a bigger role for subordinates who perceive themselves as ideal (potential) leaders. Moreover, this two-way moderation is proposed to be further qualified by subordinates’ disposition to engage in social comparison orientation. Results of two field samples with employees (N = 140; N = 287) confirm our hypotheses. In integrating the leader categorization perspective with an individual difference perspective, we not only expand the scope of follower-centric theorizing on social influence, but also support its validity.
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Abstract: Dem deutschen Einkommensteuergesetz wird häufig vorgeworfen, es sei aufgrund seiner zahlreichen Ausnahmeregelungen zu komplex. In der hier beschriebenen Online-Studie (N = 742) wurden 82 Ausnahmen aus dem Einkommensteuergesetz auf ihre Gerechtigkeit und Wichtigkeit sowie die Angemessenheit der angesetzten Freibeträge und Freigrenzen beurteilt. Zusätzlich wurde erhoben, für welche gesellschaftlichen Gruppen Ausnahmeregelungen als gerecht empfunden werden. Es zeigt sich, dass nur wenige Ausnahmen als ungerecht und unwichtig (M < 3) eingeschätzt werden. Allerdings findet sich auch eine Beurteilung als eindeutig gerecht und wichtig (M > 4) nur in einer überschaubaren Fallzahl. Gerechtigkeits- und Wichtigkeitseinschätzungen hängen dabei eng zusammen. Als generell begünstigenswert gelten in erster Linie bedürftige, abhängige und leistungsschwache Gruppen wie Menschen mit Behinderung, Familien oder Kleinunternehmer. Über die verschiedenen Ausnahmen hinweg lässt sich allerdings keine entsprechende klare Struktur in der Bewertung der einzelnen Ausnahmen auffinden. Dabei besteht auch kein korrelationsstatistischer Zusammenhang zwischen sozioökonomischen Daten und der Bewertung der Ausnahmen bzw. den Angaben zu den zu begünstigenden Gruppen. Diese Erkenntnisse ermöglichen Hinweise für zukünftige Modifikationen des Gesetzes.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1080/15213269.2011.620541|
Abstract: Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in power? We argue that the diverse perspectives of evolutionary, social learning, and embodiment theories all suggest that the association between verticality and power is relatively automatic and should, therefore, be visible in the portrayal of powerful and powerless individuals in the media. Four archival studies (with six samples) provide empirical evidence for this hypothesis and indicate that a salience power context reinforces this effect. In addition, two experimental studies confirm these effects for individuals producing media content. We discuss potential implications of this effect.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1007/s10551-011-0897-7|
Abstract: Traditionally, conceptualizations of human values are based on the assumption that individuals possess a single integrated value system comprising those values that people are attracted by and strive for. Recently, however, van Quaquebeke et al. (in J Bus Ethics 93:293–305, 2010) proposed that a value system might consist of two largely independent value orientations—an orientation of ideal values and an orientation of counter-ideal values (values that individuals are repelled by), and that both orientations exhibit antithetic effects on people’s responses to the social world. Following a call for further research on this distinction, we conducted two studies to assess the independent effects of ideal and counter-ideal values in leadership settings. Study 1 (N = 131) finds both value orientations to explain unique variance in followers’ vertical respect for their leaders. Study 2 (N = 136) confirms these results and additionally shows an analogous effect for followers’ identification with their leaders. Most importantly, we find that both value orientations exhibit their effects only independently when the content of the two orientations pertain to different value types in Schwartz’s (in J Soc Issues 50:19–46, 1994) circumplex model. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1026/0932-4089/a000020|
Abstract: Beim Erklimmen der Karriereleiter haben Frauen nach wie vor viele Hürden zu überwinden. Zur Erklärung einiger dieser Hürden verweist die Forschung auf Arbeiten zu impliziten Führungstheorien. Diese zeigen, dass bei den meisten Personen die Konzepte „Frau“ und „Führung“ schlechter kognitiv miteinander assoziiert sind als die Konzepte „Mann“ und „Führung“. Als Konsequenz, so der Schluss dieser Arbeiten, fällt es Personen im Vergleich schwerer, Frauen als Führungskräfte zu kategorisieren und entsprechend auf diese zu reagieren. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird untersucht, ob eine inkongruente Stimulation diesem diskriminierenden impliziten Assoziationsmuster entgegenwirken kann. Die Resultate unseres Experimentes mit einem Impliziten Assoziationstest (IAT; N = 77) zeigen, dass Probanden nach Vorlage von Bildern bekannter weiblicher Führungskräfte Frauen ähnlich schnell mit Führung assoziieren können wie Männer. Dieser Effekt trat allerdings stärker bei den Teilnehmerinnen auf, während bei den Teilnehmern keine signifikante Veränderung in der Reaktionszeit gefunden wurde. Hierauf aufbauend diskutieren wir, welche Rolle Bilder im Rahmen von organisationalen Gleichstellungsbestrebungen, beispielsweise als Teil der Unternehmenskommunikation, einnehmen können.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1007/s10551-009-0222-x|
Abstract: Ideals (or ideal values) help people to navigate in social life. They indicate at a very fundamental level what people are concerned about, what they strive for, and what they want to be affiliated with. Transferring this to a leader–follower analysis, our first study (n = 306) confirms that followers’ identification and satisfaction with their leaders are stronger, the more leaders match followers’ ideal leader values. Study 2 (n = 244) extends the perspective by introducing the novel concept of counter-ideals (i.e., how an ideal leader should not be) as a second, non-redundant point of reference. Results confirm that a leader’s match on ideal and on counter-ideal values have independent effects in that both explain unique variance in followers’ identification and satisfaction with their leader. Study 3 (n = 136) replicates the previous results in an experimental scenario study and provides evidence for the proposed causal direction of the underlying process. We conclude that counter-ideal values might be an additional point of reference that people use to triangulate targets above and beyond ideal values and discuss the implications of our findings for value research and management.
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Abstract: Many fouls committed in football (called soccer in some countries) are ambiguous, and there is no objective way of determining who is the "true" perpetrator or the "true" victim. Consequently, fans as well as referees often rely on a variety of decision cues when judging such foul situations. Based on embodiment research, which links perceptions of height to concepts of strength, power, and aggression, we argue that height is going to be one of the decision cues used. As a result, people are more likely to attribute a foul in an ambiguous tackle situation to the taller of two players. We find consistent support for our hypothesis, not only in field data spanning the last seven UEFA Champions League and German Bundesliga seasons, as well as the last three FIFA World Cups, but also in two experimental studies. The resulting dilemma for refereeing in practice is discussed.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1007/s10551-009-0087-z|
Abstract: Research on work values shows that respectful leadership is highly desired by employees. On the applied side, however, the extant research does not offer many insights as to which concrete leadership behaviors are perceived by employees as indications of respectful leadership. Thus, to offer such insights, we collected and content analyzed employees’ narrations of encounters with respectful leadership (N 1 = 426). The coding process resulted in 19 categories of respectful leadership spanning 149 leadership behaviors. Furthermore, to also harness this comprehensive repertoire for quantitative organizational research, we undertook two more studies (N 2a = 228; N 2b = 412) to empirically derive a feasible item-based measurement of respectful leadership and assess its psychometric qualities. In these studies, we additionally investigated the relationships between respectful leadership as assessed with this new measurement and employees’ vertical and contextual followership as assessed via subordinates’ identification with their leaders, their appraisal respect for their leaders, their feeling of self-determination, and their job satisfaction.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1080/13594320902978458|
Abstract: Although leader–member exchange (LMX) research shows that leaders engage in different kinds of relationships with different followers, it remains somewhat of an enigma why one and the same relationship is often rated differently by a leader and the respective follower. We seek to fill that conceptual void by explaining when and why such LMX disagreement is likely to occur. To do so, we reconsider antecedents of LMX quality perceptions and outline how each party's LMX quality perception is primarily dependent on the perceived contributions of the other party, moderated by perceived own contributions. We then integrate the notion of Implicit Leadership and Followership Theories (ILTs and IFTs) to argue that the currencies of contributions differ between leaders and followers. This dyadic model sets the stage to explain that LMX disagreement can stem from (1) differences in both parties' ILTs as well as both parties' IFTs, but also from (2) differences in perceptions of own and other's behaviour. We conclude by discussing communication as a means of overcoming LMX disagreement and propose an array of potential studies along the lines of our conceptualization.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1007/s10551-011-0790-4|
Abstract: To describe leadership as ethical is largely a perceptional phenomenon informed by beliefs about what is normatively appropriate. Yet there is a remarkable scarcity in the leadership literature regarding how to define what is “normatively appropriate.” To shed light on this issue, we draw upon Relational Models Theory (Fiske, 1992, Psychol Rev, 99:689–723), which differentiates between four types of relationships: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. We describe how each of these relationship models dictates a distinct set of normatively appropriate behaviors. We argue that perceptions of unethical leadership behavior result from one of three situations: (a) a mismatch between leader’s and follower’s relational models, (b) a different understanding about the behavioral expression, or preos, of the same relational model, or (c) a violation of a previously agreed upon relational model. Further, we argue that the type of relational model mismatch impacts the perceived severity of a transgression. Finally, we discuss the implications of our model with regard to understanding, managing, and regulating ethical leadership failures.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1007/s10551-008-0008-6|
Abstract: Two large online surveys were conducted among employees in Germany to explore the importance employees and organizations place on aspects of interpersonal respect in relation to other work values. The first study (n = 589) extracted a general ranking of work values, showing that employees rate issues of respect involving supervisors particularly high. The second study (n = 318) replicated the previous value ranking. Additionally, it is shown that the value priorities indicated by employees do not always match their perceptions of actual organizational practices. Particularly, interpersonal respect issues that involve employees’ supervisors diverge strongly negative. Consequences and potentials for change in organizations are discussed.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1026/0932-4089.52.4.169|
Abstract: Untergebene erfolgreich zu beeinflussen, ist eine der zentralen Funktionen von Führung. Daher ist es für die Führungsforschung wie auch für Praktizierende in Organisationen interessant zu verstehen, wann Untergebene ihre Führungskräfte respektieren in dem Sinne, dass sie sich freiwillig und gerne gegenüber deren Einfluss öffnen. Die Forschung zu Führungskraftkategorisierung zeigt, dass die Einflussoffenheit von Untergebenen umso größer ist, je stärker Führungskräfte in der Wahrnehmung der Untergebenen deren idealen Führungsprototypen entsprechen. Dieser Befund wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit mit identitätstheoretischen Konzepten der Führungsforschung in Verbindung gebracht, die davon ausgehen, dass Identifikationsprozessen eine wichtige Rolle bei der Vermittlung von Einflussoffenheit zukommt. In zwei Feldstudien (N1 = 496 und N2 = 700) können wir zeigen, dass der Zusammenhang von Führungskraftkategorisierung und der Offenheit von Untergebenen für Führungseinfluss partiell durch die Identifikation der Untergebenen mit ihren Führungskräften mediiert wird. Die Implikationen dieses Mediationsmodells für Theorie und betriebliche Praxis werden abschließend diskutiert.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1026/0932-4089.52.2.70|
Abstract: Der kognitionspsychologisch geprägte Ansatz der Führungskraft-Kategorisierung geht davon aus, dass Mitarbeiter umso positiver auf ihre Führungskräfte reagieren, je stärker diese ihren impliziten Vorstellungen über Führung (Führungsprototypen) entsprechen – also eine hohe Passung mit diesen aufweisen. Da Führungsprototypen stark kulturgeprägt sind, erscheinen die vorhandenen, vorwiegend aus dem englischsprachigen Raum stammenden Instrumente für Forschung im deutschsprachigen Raum jedoch wenig geeignet. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden deshalb zwei neu entwickelte Maße vorgestellt. Zum einen wurde der deutsche GLOBE-Datensatz in Hinblick auf zentrale Führungsattribute in Deutschland reanalysiert, um eine Erhebung der Passung mit einem sozial geteilten Führungsprototyp möglich zu machen. Zum anderen wurde ein piktorales Maß zur Erhebung der Passung mit einem idiosynkratischen Führungsprototyp entwickelt. Während der Vorteil des ersten Instruments die inhaltliche Auswertbarkeit des Passungsprofils ist, liegt der Vorteil des piktoralen Instrumentes in seiner hohen Effizienz und Kulturunabhängigkeit. Auch wenn eine erste Untersuchung in einem Unternehmen (N = 104) die konvergente und Kriteriumsvalidität beider Instrumente bestätigt, so schränkt das Studiendesign (Querschnitt mit Common Source Data) eine Einschätzung der psychometrischen Qualität beider Instrumente ein. Notwendig erscheinende Folgestudien werden daher abschließend beschrieben.
|Copy reference link||DOI: 10.1007/s11612-007-0015-6|
Abstract: Due to a rising interest in empirical ‘respect’ research but at the same time a somewhat fuzzy use of the term and its semantically close neighbors, we introduce a conceptual framework. The framework draws on existing philosophical traditions and empirical psychological works alike. It is pointed out that respect, acceptance, and tolerance are all attitudes of a subject towards an object which are not aligned on one dimension, but are concerned with quite different issues. Moreover, we propose that research needs to differentiate between two very different kinds of respect. Whereas appraisal respect, acceptance, and tolerance are attitudinal reflections of a subject’s decisions on certain issues (i.e., on influence, membership, and presence), recognition respect is proposed to be an overarching processing mode, i.e., a general attitude on how to confront others.
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Abstract: Vertreter der organisationalen Praxis und klassischen Führungsforschung sind von Konstrukten wie Führungspersönlichkeit oder Führungsverhalten sprichwörtlich verzaubert. In der Tat wird Führungserfolg fast ausschließlich auf das eine oder das andere zurückgeführt. Dabei wird jedoch die entscheidende Rolle, die Mitarbeiter in Führungsprozessen einnehmen, kaum beachtet. Um besser verstehen zu können, unter welchen Bedingungen Führung effektiv ist, stellen moderne Führungstheorien daher eher die Mitarbeiter in den Mittelpunkt ihrer Betrachtungen. In diesem Kapitel führen wir die Leser in diese Geführtenperspektive auf den Führungsprozess ein, indem wir beschreiben, wie Mitarbeiter mit Hilfe sogenannter impliziter Führungstheorien das Wirken ihrer Führungskräfte wahrnehmen und schlussendlich auf dieser Basis auf diese reagieren. Anschließend leiten wir anhand von verschiedenen Beispielen aus der Praxis Konsequenzen der Geführtenperspektive für die Gestaltung von Führungsprozessen und der Führungskultur von Unternehmen ab
Prof. Dr. Niels Van Quaquebeke
Tel: +49 40 328707-241
Fax: +49 40 328707-209